MILLSTONES TO MEGAWATTS

A Bibliography for Industrial Historians

 

The Publications of

Dr. D.G.Tucker

 

Editor: Tony Bonson

The Midland Wind & Water Mills Group

 

 

INTRODUCTION.. 2

EDUCATION.. 4

ELECTRONICS. 5

RADIO.. 8

SONAR. 9

TELECOMMUNICATIONS. 13

BIOGRAPHY.. 15

THE HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.. 17

EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES. 20

HYDRO-ELECTRICITY.. 22

ICELAND.. 23

INLAND NAVIGATION.. 24

METALS. 25

MILLS. 26

MILLSTONES. 30

MINING.. 32

THE HISTORY OF RADIO.. 34

RAILWAYS. 35

ROAD TRANSPORT. 37

STEAM POWER. 38

THE HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS. 39

ECOLOGY.. 41

MISCELLANY.. 42

 

INTRODUCTION
David Gordon Tucker was born in 1914 and died aged 75 in 1990. During his lifetime as an engineer, academic, and industrial historian he published well over 300 items, most of which were articles in various journals and periodicals. It was obvious that his philosophy was to ensure that all the time and effort of his research would be of the greatest benefit by disseminating the information to as wide an audience as possible. This information could then be used by others to take the research further, also the very fact of publication would unearth sources of information that otherwise would not have come to light. This philosophy is not so unusual when one considers Gordon’s background as an engineer and academic but can seem foreign to some historians who prefer to claim a subject as their own fiefdom. Alternatively, they do not publish their work until every facet of the subject has been investigated and who, therefore, by the very nature of historical research, only publish rarely and in a very narrow field.

As the bulk of Gordon Tucker’s published research was as articles in various journals and periodicals, these articles would be tailored to the type of publication in which they appeared. Sometimes, in order to publish all his information, Gordon would publish similar articles in a number of journals, all with a different emphasis and with differing details. Unfortunately the passing of time has left the total information dispersed and perhaps some has become forgotten. In the 53 years during which he was actively publishing, Gordon averaged six published items per year, that is one every two months. If one considers that there were some times that were not very productive, then at other times he was probably producing one item for publication per month (this was in the days before word processing!). This gives some idea of the amount of work that he undertook and the importance of his archive.

Throughout his life Gordon Tucker was always keen to encourage others in their research work and it is for this reason that this bibliography has been compiled to make his work once again accessible to another generation of industrial historians and archaeologists.

Gordon Tucker’s Career
Gordon Tucker’s career started at the age of seventeen, in 1931, when he joined the Post Office as an apprentice at their research establishment at Dollis Hill in North London. After acquiring his bachelor’s degree externally from London University he published his first paper in 1937 in the Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal. In the following years up to 1945 his output was not prolific, as can be imagined with such diversions as the Second World War, his external degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and his courtship and marriage to his wife, Mary. After 1945 he published widely in a variety of periodicals and learned society journals on subjects related to telecommunications, radio, or just basic electronic circuitry. Many of these articles are now of historical interest, for Dr.Tucker, as he had now become, invented the synchrodyne radio receiver and worked on many aspects of telephony such as the development of the FDM carrier system which remained in use until quite recently.

In 1950 he moved to the Royal Navy Underwater Research Establishment at Portland working on mine hunting sonar. A major regret that he had of his time with the Royal Navy was the lack of opportunity for publication due to the Official Secrets Act. In 1955 he accepted the position of Professor of Electrical Engineering at Birmingham University which provided much more opportunity for publication in all fields of Electronic Engineering including sonar. The department established the first laboratory dedicated to sonar research which led to the development of side scan sonars for fishing purposes. The published articles of this time now provide a historical perspective to a major development in this little known field of technology.

During his time at Birmingham University Gordon began to become interested in the history of technology, joining the Newcomen Society in the late 1950s. After his retirement from the role of professor at the age of 59, Gordon’s activities with respect to industrial history blossomed. Not only was he concerned with his own research but he encouraged others by starting initiatives and serving regularly on existing bodies. In particular he was instrumental in founding the History of Technology committee at the Institution of Electrical Engineers and was a founder member of the Midland Wind & Water Mills Group. He served as a Council Member of the Historical Metallurgy Society and the Newcomen Society as well as being a Commissioner on Ancient Monuments for Wales. His own research covered such diverse topics as metal working, mining, quarrying, railways, water mills, millstones, electricity generation, hydroelectricity, and the history of telecommunications. His research of the topics of millstones and early electricity generation were of seminal importance and still forms the major part of the total published material of these subjects. During this third career as an industrial historian, Gordon was very much concerned with the publication of articles, not just his own, but also he encouraged and established publishing standards for such as the Journal of the Midland Mills Group and he was one of the founding editors of the Industrial Archaeology Review.

When reviewing the total published output of Gordon Tucker in chronological order it is possible to see how his interests in industrial history developed. One of the areas of research that Gordon was interested in originally was that of early electricity generation. In studying this topic he was bound to come across Sir William Preece who acted as a consultant engineer for many of the early power generation schemes. This interest was magnified by the fact that Sir William Preece had also been the founder and leader of the Post Office Engineers, the body that Gordon joined in 1931. It is just possible that some of Gordon’s colleagues in 1931 had worked at the Post Office under Preece, if not, then no doubt there were many stories about the ‘great man’. So it is no surprise that Gordon started to investigate this ‘hero’ of the Post Office. It was this interest in electricity generation coupled with investigation of Sir William Preece’s role that led him to the early hydro-electric generation installations, many of which were reported on by Preece. Another activity of Sir William Preece was to act as an Inspector for the Board of Trade for light railways. It was through reading Preece’s reports that Gordon became intrigued by the Lartigue traction system and light railways in general. By coincidence Gordon’s research into Sir William Preece also unearthed the story of his major assistant, one Gisbert Kapp, who went on to become the first Professor of Electrical Engineering at Birmingham University, the post eventually held by Gordon himself.

However many of Gordon’s other interests developed from his love of the border country of England and Wales and the industries that flourished there in the past. The Tuckers had a cottage at Penallt, near Monmouth, and during time spent there Gordon became interested in the many disused quarries in the neighbourhood which had produced millstones in the past. This interest in millstones brought him into contact not only with water powered industry but mining, quarrying and the metal working industries. Once involved with a topic he was not just concerned with its local history but was determined to see it in a wider context which then took him far and wide around the country on his researches. Consequently, although he published many articles based on the border country and Wales, he also was involved in publishing accounts of corresponding practices in the Scottish and Northern English mines and quarries.

A good illustration of Gordon’s inquisitiveness and publication output can be gained from the visit that he made to Iceland to chair one of the sessions of a conference arranged by the fisheries and agriculture organisation of the United Nations and also to present a paper on a new sonar developed by the University. He was accompanied by his wife Mary so as well as attending the conference they spent some of their spare time looking into some of the industry on the island. This one visit to Iceland resulted in the publication of five articles on various aspects of Icelandic industrial history.

Bibliography Layout

Unfortunately to publish this bibliography in chronological order would not achieve the objective of making the information readily accessible to today’s researcher. Therefore the material has been sorted into three main groups, namely those articles published pertaining to Gordon Tucker’s engineering and academic career, those publications concerning industrial history, and a miscellaneous section.

Within each of these three groups the material has been selected into a number of subject headings, each subject being further split by the type of publication, i.e. books, articles, letters, etc. Within these sections the bibliography has been listed chronologically. It will be noted that the selections into Electronics, Telecommunications, Radio and Sonar are rather arbitrary in some cases as there is a considerable overlap in these subjects.

In the first group pertaining to Gordon’s professional career the bibliography lists the basic details of each publication, whereas in the group concerned with industrial history each bibliography entry has a summary of the publications contents. The miscellaneous group again consists of a basic listing of the various publications.

This technique will make clear and accessible the volume of work on any one subject and enable the student of today to trace easily those items that are of interest and hopefully prevent needless effort in covering research already accomplished but should encourage further study and publication on those topics that were dear to Gordon Tucker.

EDUCATION

Articles

The Department of Electrical Engineering.

University of Birmingham Gazette, Vol 9 No 6. 1957.

 

Technological Humanism.

Journal of the institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol l05, p601/2, 1958

 

Engineer Training at the Universities.

Industrial Newsletter Vol 17, p5, 1958.

 

Broader Education in a Technological Department.

University Quarterly, p157, 1958.

 

The Presentation of Electrical Network Theory.

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol 22, p1/17, June 1959.

 

Non-Linear Circuits: A Course for Undergraduates.

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol 26, p1/11, June 1961.

 

Engineering in the University of Birmingham.

University of Birmingham Gazette Vol 17, p76/8, 1964.

 

Liason between the Electronics Industry and Universities.

N.E.C Review, Vol 4, p38/9, 1968.

 

Research In Underwater Acoustics and Sonar.

University of Birmingham Gazette, Vol 22. p70/3, 1970.

(see also under Sonar)

 

Published Letters

Headmasters and University Engineering Courses.

Universities Quarterly Vol 15, p290/2, June 1961.

[Co-author: J.T.Allanson.]

 

Coordination in Materials Research and Teaching.

New Scientist Vol 422, December 1964

 

ELECTRONICS

Books

Circuits with Periodically-Varying Parameters.

Published by MacDonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd., London, 175 pages, 1964.

 

Elementary Electrical Network Theory.

Published by Pergamon Press Ltd., 169 pages, 1964.

 

Circuitos con Parametros Periodicamente Variables.

(Translation of ‘Circuits with Periodically-Varying Parameters’).

Published by Ediciones URMO, Bilbao, Spain. 176, pages, 1973.

 

Articles

A Selective Circuit and Frequency Meter using a Tuning Fork.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 14, p98/101, August 1942.

 

The Generation of Groups of Harmonics.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 14, p232/7, November 1942.

 

The Synchronisation of Oscillators (4 parts).

Electronic Engineering, Vol 15, p412/7 March,April,June,July 1943.

 

The Operation of Valve Oscillators and their Synchronisation.

Post Office Electrical Engineers Journal Vol 185.

 

Insertion Loss of Filters.

Wireless Engineer , Vol 22, p62/71, February 1945.

 

Forced Oscillations in Oscillator Circuits and the Synchronisation of Oscillators.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 92, Pt 3, No.l9, p226/34, September 1945.

 

Transient Response of Filters (2 parts).

Wireless Engineer, Vol 23, p23/90, February 1946.

 

Transient Response of Tuned-circuit Cascades.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 23, p250/8, September 1946.

 

The Transient Response of a Tuned Circuit.

Electronic Engineer, Vol 18, p379/81, December 1946.

 

A Square-law Circuit.

Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol 24, October 1947.

[Co-author: J.H.P.Draper, B.Sc.(Eng)]

 

The Constancy of Small Rectifiers.

Journal of Scientific Instruments and of Physics in Industry, Vol 25, No 11, p369/71, November 1948.

[Co-author: G.F.Machen, B.Sc.]

 

A Choke-coupled Phase-invertor of high Accuracy.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 23, p64/5, February 1951.

[Co-author: R.A.Seymour]

 

Two Notes on the Performance of Rectifier Modulators.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 99, Pt 3, p400/4, November 1952.

 

Non-Linearity in a Voltmeter using Cathode-follower & Thermocouple.

Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol 30, p11/13, January 1953.

 

The Use of Correlation Techniques in the Study of Servomechanisms.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 15, No 10, p526, October 1955.

 

Detection of Pulse Signals in Noise: Trace-to-Trace Correlation in Visual Displays.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 17, No 6. p319/29, June 1957.

 

Negative Feedback in Frequency Changers.

Electronic Technology, Vol 37, No 3, p2/4, March 1960.

 

Rectifier Modulators.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers Vol 107, p167/9, March 1960.

 

Rectifier Modulators with Frequency-Selective Terminations.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 107. Pt B, No 33, p261/72, May 1960.

[Co-author: D.P.Howson, ,B.Sc.]

 

The Input Impedance of Rectifier Modulators.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 107, Pt 8, No 33, p273/84, May 1960.

 

Elimination of Even-order Modulation in Rectifier Modulators.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 21, No 2, p161/7, February 1961

 

Constant-Resistance Modulators.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 21, No 6, p491/6, June 1961.

 

Rectifier Modulators, Effect of Stray Capacitance and Tuning.

Electronic Technology, Vol 38, No 12. p450/6, December 1961.

[Co-author: J.A.Rickattson, M.Sc.]

 

Circuits with Time-Varying Parameters: Modulators, Frequency-changers and Parametric amplifiers.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 25, No 3, p263/71, March 1963.

 

Negative Frequency.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 25, No 4, p289/90, April 1963.

 

Parametric Amplifiers: Static & Dynamic Inductance & Capacitance & their Significance in the Non-linear & Time-varying Approaches.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 25. No 4, p353/5. April 1963.

[Co-author: F.J.Hyde, D.Sc.]

 

Rectification (Electricity).

The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, Vol 6, p227, 1963.

Published by Pergamon Press Ltd.

 

Rectifier, Electrical.

The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, Vol 6, p228/31, 1963.

Published by Pergamon Press Ltd.

 

Parametric Amplifiers & Converters with Pumped Inductance & Capacitance.

The Radio & Electronic Engineer, Vol 27, No 6. p435/9, June 1964.

[Co-author: K.L.Hughes, B.Sc.]

 

Highly-Efficient Generation of a Specified Harmonic or Sub-harmonic by means of switches.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer; Vol 28, No 1, p25/32, July 1964.

 

The Generation of A.C. or a Specified Harmonic, using D.C. Power and Switches with idealized Frequency-selective Circuits.

Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol 3, p583/9, 1965.

 

Reciprocity in Parametric Circuits and Polyphase Modulation.

Proceedings of the Symposium on Network Theory, Cranfield. September 1965.

[Co-author: D.P.Howson]

 

Zero Loss Second-order Ring Modulator.

Electronic Letters, Vol 1, November 1965.

 

Reciprocity in Parametric Circuits.

Proceedings of NATO Adv. Study Inst on Network & Signal Theory, p1/11, September 1972.

[Co-author: D.P.Howson, D.Sc.]

 

Frequency-Changer Circuit with a Single Ideal Switch, the Production of Even Order Products & Conditions for Zero Loss.

International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol 10, p189/94, 1972.

 

Book Reviews

Technics and Purpose, Parts I - IV.

By A.Richardson, E.Barker, H.A.Warren, & M.Wingate.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engihsers, Vol 4, p273, 1958.

 

Sampled-Data Control Systems.

By E.I.Jury.

Proceedings of the Physical Society 1959.

 

Introductory Electronics, Principles of Electronics.

By Prof M.R.Gavin & Dr.J.E.Houldin.

Nature, Vol 184, p751, 1959.

 

Published Letters

Resonant circuit with periodically varying parameters.

Wireless Engineer Vol 29, p222/3, August 1952.

 

Detection of Pulse Signals in Noise: Trace-to-Trace Correlation in Visual Displays.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, p705/6, 1957.

 

The Use of Power Series in Network Responses.

Electronic & Radio Engineer Vol 15, No 2, p74, February 1958.

 

Reducing Amplifier Distortion.

Electronic Technology, Vol 37, No 3, p131, March 1960.

 

Analogue Multipliers.

Electronic Technology, Vol 39, No 7, p285, July 1962.

 

RADIO

Books

Modulators and Frequency-Changers for Amplitude Modulated Line and Radio Systems.

Published by MacDonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd., London. 232 pages. 1953.

 

Articles

Bandwidth & Speed of Build-up as Performance Criteria for Pulse and Television Amplifiers.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 94, Pt 3, No 29, p218/26, 1947.

 

Non-linear Regenerative Circuits.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 24, p178/84, June 1947.

 

The Synchrodyne: A New Type of Radio Receiver for A.M. Signals.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 19,1947.

 

The Synchrodyne, Series 2: A New Type of Radio Receiver for A.M. Signals.

Electronic Engineering, Vols 19 & 20, November 1947 & February 1948.

[Co-author: J.Garlick, B.Sc.]

 

The Synchrodyne Correspondence.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 19, p368/9 November 1947.

 

Some Aspects of the Design of Balanced Rectifier Modulators for Precision Applications.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 95, Pt 3, No 35, pl6l/70, May 1948.

 

The Effect of an Unwanted Signal mixed with the Carrier Supply of Ring and Cowan Modulators.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 95, Pt 3, No 35, p173/6, May 1948.

 

Discussion on Papers in Vol 96. Pt 3. No 35.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 96, Pt3, No 41, p215/20, May 1949.

 

Rectifier Modulators with Frequency-selective Terminations.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 96, Pt 3, No 43, p422/8, September 1949.

 

Non-linear Inductance and Capacitance as Modulators for A.M. Systems.

The Post Office Electrical Engineers Journal Vol 42, p1/4, October 1949.

 

Frequency Changers and Amplifiers with Constant Gain.

Proceedings of the Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 37. No 11, November 1949.

 

Non-linear Effects in Rectifier Modulators.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 27, p66, February 1950.

[Co-author: E.Jeyes]

 

Balanced Rectifier Modulators without Transformers.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 22, p139/41, April 1950.

 

The Synchrodyne as a Precision Demodulator.

Wireless Engineer Vol 27, p227/36, September 1950.

[Co-author: R.A.Seymour]

 

Modulators, Frequency Changers and Detectors using Rectifiers with Frequency-dependent Characteristics.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 98. Pt 3, No 55. p394/8, September 1951.

 

Linear Rectifiers and Limiters: Effect on Complex Signals and Noise.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 29, p128/37, May 1952.

 

The Synchrodyne and Coherent Detectors: Effect on Signal/Noise Ratios & Comparison with the Linear Detector.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 29. p184/8, July 1952.

 

Detection of Pulse Signals in Noise.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 30, p264/73, November 1953.

[Co-author: J.W.R.Griffiths, B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E.]

 

Intermodulation Distortion in Rectifier Modulators.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 31, p145/52. June 1954.

 

Signal/Noise Performance of Multiplier (or Correlation) & Addition (or Integrating) Types of Detector.

Monograph 120R published by The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 10 pages, February 1955.

 

Unbalanced Effects in Modulators.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 15, No 4, p199/207, April 1955.

 

Discrimination of a Synchronized Oscillator against Interference Tones and Noise.

Monograph 146R published by The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 10 pages, August 1955.

[Co-author: G.G.Jamieson]

 

Coherent & Non-coherent Demodulation of Envelope-modulated Signal with Particular Reference to the Enhanced-carrier System.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 25, No 1, January 1963.

[Co-author: P.V.lndiresan. Ph.D.]

 

Published Letters

Single Sideband Controlled-carrier System for Aircraft Communication.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 101, Pt 3, p399/400, November 1954.

 

SONAR

Books

Applied Underwater Acoustics.

Published by Pergamon Press Ltd, 244 pages, 1966.

[Co-author: B.K.Gazey, Ph.D.]

 

Underwater Observations Using Sonar.

Published by Fishing News (Books) Limited, London, 144 pages, 1966.

 

Sonar in Fisheries: A Forward Look.

Published by Fishing News (Books) Limited, London, 136 pages, 1967.

 

Articles

On Improving the Detection of Pulse Signals in Noise.

Journal of the Royal Navy Scientific Service, Vol 7, No 5, p136/45, 1952.

[Co-author: J.W.R.Griffiths, B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E.]

 

Detection of Pulse-signals in Noise by Intensity-modulated Visual Display: Theory in Terms of Just-noticeable Differences.

Journal of the Royal Navy Scientific Service. Vol 10, No 5 p241/9, 1955.

[Co-author: J.W.R.Griffiths]

 

Detection of Pulse Signals in Noise: Theory of Intensity-modulated Display in Terms of Just-noticeable Differences.

Wireless Engineer, Vol 32, p290/7, November 1955.

[Co-author: J.W.R.Griffiths, B.Sc.]

 

Some Aspects of the Design of Acoustic & Electromagnetic Strip Arrays.

Journal of the Royal Navy Scientific Service, Vol 11, No 1, p16/25,1956.

 

Underwater Echo-Ranging.

Journal of the British Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol 16, No 5. p243/69, May 1956.

 

Some Aspects of the Design of Strip Arrays.

Acoustica, Vol 6, p403/11, 1956.

 

Arrays with Constant Beam-Width over a Wide Frequency-Range.

Nature, Vol 180. p496/7, September 1957.

 

The Randomization of Combinations of Noise Sources by means of Delay Lines.

Acoustica, Vol 7, No 6, p399/402, 1957.

 

The Signal/Noise Performance of Electro-Acoustic Strip Arrays.

Acoustica, Vol 8, No 1, p53/62, 1956.

 

Signal/Noise Performance of Super-Directive Arrays.

Acoustica, Vol 8, No 2, p112/6, 1958.

 

Electronic Sector Scanning.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 18, No 8, p465/84, August 1958.

[Co-authors: V.G.Welsby, Ph.D. & R.Kendall, M.Sc.]

 

Electronic Sector-Scanning Arrays.

Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol 12, No 2. p184/9, April 1959.

 

Multiplicative Receiving Arrays.

Journal of British Radio Engineers, Vol 19. No 6. p369/82, June 1959.

[Co-author: V.G.Welsby, Ph.D.]

 

Underwater Echo-Ranging with Electronic Sector Scanning: Sea Trials on R.R.S.Discovery II,

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 19, No 11, p681/96, November 1959.

[Co-authors: V.G.Welsby, PhD; L.Kay, BSc; M.J.Tucker, BSc; A.R.Stubbs,BSc; J.G.Henderson,BSc.]

 

Automatic Stabilization of Underwater Acoustic Beams without Mechanical Motion of the Transducer.

International Hydrographical Review, Vol 37, No 1, p69/78, January 1960.

[Co-author: J.G.Henderson]

 

Electronic Sector-Scanning Asdic: An Improved Fish Locator and Navigational Instrument.

Nature, Vol 185, No 4709, p1/8, January 1960.

[Co-author: Dr.V.G.Welsby]

 

Some New Possibilities in Civil Underwater Echo-Ranging.

Journal of the British Radio Engineers, Vol 20. No 4, p299/311. April 1960.

 

Directional Echo Sounding: Some Possible Improvements in Equipment & Technique.

International Hydrographical Review, Vol 37, No 2, p43/53, July 1960.

 

Synchronous Demodulation of Phase-reversing Binary Signals and the Effect of Limiting Action.

Institute of Radio Engineers, Transactions of the Professional Group on Communications Systems, Vol CS-9, No 1, p77/82. March 1961.

 

Improved Directivity using Synchronous Demodulation.

Acoustica, Vol 11, p45/9, 1961.

 

Space-Frequency Equivalence in Directional Arrays with special reference to Superdirectivity and Reciprocity.

Monograph 479E of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 7 pages, Nov 1961.

 

Searching the Sea with Sound.

New Scientist, Vol 15, p134/36,1961.

 

Ein Sonar-Gerät mit Elektronischer Abtastung der Sektoren.

Bucherei der Funkortung, Vol 8, Teil III, p61/70, 1961.

[Co-author: V.G.Welsby]

 

Sonar Arrays, Systems, and Displays.

Underwater Acoustics, Lecture 2, p29/49. Published by Plenum Press Inc, 1962.

 

Sonar Systems.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 23, No 5, p329, May 1962.

 

The Future of Non-military Sonar, A Symposium discussion.

Symposium on Sonar Systems, p415/23. July 1 962.

 

Report of a Symposium on Radio and Electronics Research in Great Britain.

Proceedings of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 1, No 3, p57/70, January 1963.

 

Multiplicative Arrays in Radio-Astronomy and Sonar Systems.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 25, No 2. p113/8, February 1963.

 

‘Sector Scanning’ May be the Sonar of the Future.

World Fishing, September 1963.

[Co-author: V.G.Welsby]

 

Seeking Fish with Ultrasound.

New Scientist Vol 25, p365, 1964.

 

Sector-Scanning Sonar for Fisheries Purposes.

Modern Fishing Gear of the World Vol 2, p367/70, 1964.

[Co-author: V.G.Welsby]

 

Non-military Sonar.

Sea Frontiers, Vol 10, p241/51, September 1964.

 

Sonar.

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, Supplementary Vol 1, p1/4. 1964.

 

Sonar and Underwater Acoustical Engineering.

Electronics & Power, Vol 11, p220/2, July 1965.

 

The Exploitation of Non-linearity in Underwater Acoustics.

Journal of Sound Vibrations, Vol 2, No 4, p429/34, 1965.

 

The Spatial Correlation of Reverberation, The Correlation due to Mutual Coupling & their Implications for Digital Sonar.

Proceedings of NATO Symposium, La Spezia, Italy p1/12, September 1967.

 

Superdirective Arrays: The use of decoupling between elements to ease design and increase bandwidth.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 34, No 4, p251, October 1967.

 

The Effects of Inter-element Coupling on Line Arrays on Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Beam Steering.

Journal of Sound Vibration, Vol 6, No 3, p315/23,1967.

 

Improved Near-field Discrimination by the use of Multiplicative Signal Processing in C.T.F.M. Radar or Sonar.

Electronic Letters, Vol 4, p245, 1968.

[Co-author: M.J.Withers]

 

Correlation due to Inter-element Coupling in Line Arrays.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 36, No 2, p95/100, August 1968.

 

Near-field Effects in Electronic Scanning Sonar.

Journal of Sound Vibrations, Vol. 8, No 3, p355/63, 1968.

 

Sonar picks up stirrings in Loch Ness.

New Scientist, p664/6, December 1968.

[Co-author: Hugh Braithwaite]

 

A Review of Progress in Underwater Acoustics.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 37, No 2, p69, February 1969.

 

Sonar - sharper Senses in the Depths.

New Scientist p392/4, February 1969.

 

Design of Thinned Arrays using the Array-excitation Autocorrelation Function.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 116, No 4, p521/2, April 1969.

 

Underwater Observation and Communication

Underwater Science and Technology Journal, p23/5, June 1969.

 

Distinguishing Automatically the Echoes from Acoustically ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ Objects, with particular reference to the Detection of Fish.

Journal of Sound Vibration, Vol 9, No 3, p393/7,1969.

[Co-author: N.J.Barnickle]

 

Research in Under Water Acoustics and Sonar.

University of Birmingham Gazette, Vol 22, p70/3, 1970.

 

Possibilities and Trends for Future Development of Sonar for Fisheries.

F.A.O. Conference on Fish Finding, Purse Seining, & Aimed Trawling, p1/1l, March 1970.

 

Sonar for Fisheries: Possibilities and Trends for Future Development.

Underwater Science and Technology Journal, p145/54, September 1970.

 

Some Sonar Observations in Loch Ness.

Proceedings of the Challenger Society, Vol 4, Part 2, November 1970.

[Co-author: D.J.Creasey]

 

Possibilities and Trends for Future Development of Sonar.

Modern Fishing Gear of the World, Vol 3, p130/7,1971.

 

Discussion: Sonar. (Proceedings of F.A.O. Conference),

Modern Fishing Gear of the World, Vol 3, p153/4,1971.

 

Underwater Acoustics: Report of N.E.R.C. Working Group.

Published by Natural Environment Research Council, Vol C, No 6, p1/32, December 1971.

 

Sonar.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, 1972.

 

Editorial

Electronic Engineering in Ocean Technology.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 40. No 2. p57, August 1970.

 

Book Review

Ocean Acoustics.

By I.Tolstoy & C.S.Clay.

Journal of Sounds & Vibrations, Vol 6, p278/80, 1967.

 

 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

 

Articles

Constant Impedance Networks for Line Equalisations.

Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal, Vol 29, p302/8. January 1937.

 

The Provision of Music Channels on 12-channel Carrier Cables.

Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal, Vol 31, p280/5, January 1939.

 

Carrier Frequency Synchronisation.

Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal, Vol 33, p75/81, July 1940.

 

Impedence Matching Networks tor Unloaded Cable.

Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal, Vol 34, p187/9, January 1942.

 

Frequency Division without Free Oscillation.

Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal, Vol 35, p62, July 1942.

 

Pulse Distortion: The Probability Distribution of Distortion Magnitudes due to Inter-channel Interference in Multi-channel Pulse-transmission Systems.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 93, Pt 3, No 25, p323/34, September 1946.

 

Highly-selective Transmission-measuring Equipment for Communication Circuits.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 94, Pt II, No 39, p247/52, February 1947.

 

Rectifier Resistance Laws: Analysis of Non-linear Transmission Circuits.

Wireless Engineer Vol 25, p117/28, 1948.

 

A Two-phase Telecommunication System.

Electronic Engineering, Vol 20, p150/92, 1948.

 

A Highly-selective Transmission Measuring Equipment for 12-channel and 24-channel Carrier Systems.

The Post Office Electrical Engineers’ Journal Vol 41, p1/4, October 1948.

[Co-author: J.Garlick,B.Sc.]

 

Polyphase Modulation as a Solution of Certain Filtration Problems in Telecommunications.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 97, Pt 3, No 49, p349/58, September 1950.

[CO-author: I.F.MacDiamid]

 

The Performance of Practical Constant-resistance Modulators in relation to their use in F.D.M. Systems.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 31, No 5, p314/8, May 1966.

[Co-author. G Terreault,M.Sc.]

 

Second-order Ring Modulator Calculations of Losses and some Design Considerations.

Proceedings of the institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 113, No 9, p1437/62, September 1966.

 

Constant-resistance Modulators with built-in Frequency Selectivity.

International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol 5, p491/8, 1967.

 

Input Modulation (i.e. Interchannel Crosstalk) in Constant-resistance Modulators for use in F.D.M. Systems.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 114, No 10, p1385/90, October 1967.

 

Design of Simple Frequency-division-multiplex Communication Systems without Band-pass Filters, with particular reference to use Constant- resistance Modulators.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 34, No 5, p277188, November 1967.

 

Loss due to Switch (or Rectifier) Resistances in ‘Zero-loss’ Modulators or Harmonic Generators of any order of Modulation.

Institution of Electrical Engineers Conference Book, Vol 23, p255/65, January 1968.

 

Losses in a Lattice Switch with Applications to Modulator Circuits.

International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol 6, p491/7, 1969.

 

Van Der Graaf’s Equivalent Circuits for Series and Shunt Modulators.

Electronic Letters, Vol 6, No 8, p238/40, April 1970.

[Co-author: D.P.Howson]

 

Telecommunications - is the End of the Line in Sight?

Institute of Electrical Engineers News, May 1971.

 

Published Letter

A Comparison of Two Radiometer Circuits.

Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol 45, No 3, March 1957.

 

Book Reviews

Communications and Electronics Buyers’ Guide: Who’s Who and Reference Book, 1958-9.

Edited by C.C.Gee.

Nature Reviews, Vol 568, 1958.

 

Telecommunications

By J.Brown & E.V.D.Glazier

Engineering, November 1964.

 

Männer der Funktechnik.

By Sigfrid von Weiher.

The Newcormen Bulletin Vol 128, p18/9, 1984.

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

Booklet

Gisbert Kapp, 1852-1922.

Published by the University of Birmingham, 36 pages, 1973.

This biography provides a brief summary of Kapp’s childhood, marriage, and personal relationships. The main part of the booklet describes Kapp’s creative period as an electrical engineer working in Britain during the last two decades of the 19th century when he was responsible for the invention of many important electrical machines and devices, as well as working as a consultant engineer, with such notable figures as W.H.Preece, on electricity supply schemes. There then followed a period of ten years when he was based in Germany lecturing and writing textbooks. He was appointed professor of Electrical Engineering at Birmingham University where he continued his researches and inventions, greatly enhancing the reputation of the University. His public role as president of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the papers that he published are highlighted, especially his role in debates about free trade. There is also a comprehensive bibliography of his published papers and a list of his patents.

 

Articles

W.H.Preece:19th Century Telegraph. Telephone and Power Station Engineer.

Proceedings of the 2nd I.E.E Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1974.

An attempt is made to indicate the historical significance of W.H.Preece who dominated Post Office engineering throughout the 1880s and 1890s. His other work assisting in the development of public electric lighting systems and his private practice as a consultant engineer is also described. His character as a man of immense energy and industry is evaluated, as is his skill as a prolific writer and lecturer.

 

François van Rysselberghe: Pioneer of Long-Distance Telephony.

Technology & Culture, Vol 19. p650/74, October 1978.

This short biography briefly describes van Rysselberghe’s early career but then concentrates on the invention and development of his system of simultaneous telephony and telegraphy and its rapid application in Europe, as well as his remarkable experiments in the United States. Some objections to the system, and some criticisms and controversies are reported and discussed. The novelty of van Rysselberghe’s system is examined and the conclusion reached that his achievement was to make long distance telephony a commercial reality.

 

Sir William Preece (1834-1913).

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 53, p119/38, 1982.

This biography of the Engineer-in-Chief to the Post Office from 1892 to 1899, twice President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and also President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, covers seven areas of his professional life. There is a brief note on his work on telegraphy; a brief note or his work in telephone transmission; his involvement with the telephone from 1877; an account of his investigation into the Edison Effect in 1855; his work or wireless communication using a system not involving radiation of electromagnetic waves; his connection with railway signalling, etc., especially his involvement with the Lartigue system for monorails; and a comparatively full account of his work as a consulting engineer for electric lighting and generation projects.

 

Kapp, Gisbert.

Dictionary of Business Biography, p558/61, 1985.

This biography of Gisbert Kapp who was Professor of Electrical Engineering at Birmingham University from 1905 to 1919 covers his early life as a design engineer in industry; his work as a consulting engineer in the 1890s for electricity supply schemes; and his career in Germany as general secretary of the V.D.E. and teacher at the Berlin Technische Hochschule up to 1905. His main contribution is seen as his development of the concept of the magnetic circuit, and as a pioneer of sound design principles for electrical machinery.

 

Preece, Sir William Henry (1834-1913): Consulting Electrical Engineer.

Dictionary of Business Biography, p766/9, 1986.

This entry concerns the life of Sir William Henry Preece (1834 - 1913). Mention is made of his education and early career as an electrical engineer with a variety of telegraph companies. On the nationalisation of telegraphs as part of the Post Office in 1870, he became a civil servant rising to the position of Engineer-in-Chief. During this time he was responsible for the introduction of many new ideas and inventions in the fields of telegraphs and telephony. At the same time he also undertook private consultancies in a number of fields such as electric lighting systems for towns and buildings, water supply, and sanitation. The biography concludes by mentioning his presidencies of the Society of Telegraph Engineers (later the Institution of Electrical Engineers) and the Institution of Civil Engineers together with his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society.

 

A New Archive of Gisbert Kapp Papers with special reference to his Autobiography.

Proceedings of the 17th I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1989.

This paper describes the archive, held at Birmingham University, of Gisbert Kapp (1852 - 1922) a pioneer of electrical engineering who was the first Professor of Electrical Engineering at Birmingham University. The archive contains Gisbert Kapp’s baptismal certificate, a large collection of letters in English and German (the ones in German have not been translated), and Kapp’s unfinished autobiography. Part of this autobiography is reproduced. The first section concerning his family history, his upbringing, and education in Vienna, Prague, and Zurich are briefly summarised. However his professional career from 1872 to 1884 is reproduced in detail. This covers periods working in Germany, Austria and England as a mechanical engineer. He then changed to the new discipline of electrical engineering, working in England and Germany, inventing, patenting and writing papers on his work before coming to Birmingham University in 1905.

 

Book Review

Sir William Preece, F.R.S: Victorian Engineer Extraordinary.

By E.C.Baker.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vo146, No 11, p572.1976.

 

 

THE HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Booklets

Gisbert Kapp 1852-1922.

Published by The University of Birmingham. 36 pages, 1973.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

How Towns got Electric Light and Tramways: A Case Study Gloucestershire and Neighbouring Towns.

Published by The Science Museum, 64 pages. 1978.

An account is given of how the five main towns of Gloucestershire came to consider and decide how to set up an electricity supply undertaking. The systems and plants eventually installed are recorded, as is the way that demand expanded. The proposals for electric tramways are also examined and the beginnings of the tramway undertakings are described. These developments are examined against the background of developments in Britain as a whole, showing that the Gloucestershire region appears to be a microcosm of the early British electricity scene.

 

Articles

The Beginnings of Electrical Supply in Bristol, 1889-1902.

Journal of the Bristol Industrial Archaeology Society, Vol 5. p11/8, 1972.

The role of W.H.Preece as consulting engineer to the Bristol Corporation is explored including his advice on the timing of the start of the municipal electricity generation scheme. The building work, machinery and plant required to provide both domestic and street lighting is described followed by details of the early expansion at Temble Bank and Avonbank. The efforts of the Corporation to take over the local tramway company are detailed, which culminated in the tramway company building its own generating station next to the municipal one in order to operate electric trams.

 

W.H.Preece: 19th Century Telegraph, Telephone and Power Station Engineer.

Procedings of the Second I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1974.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

An Interview with Mr.A.B.Cousins of Merthyr Tydfil, Power Station Engineer and Inventor of the Early 1900s.

Proceedings of the Third I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1975.

[Co-author: Eleanor D.P.Symons]

Mr.Cousins trained as an electrical engineer at the end of the 19th century. His reminiscences cover his experiences with the public electricity supply at Merthyr Tydfil, early X-ray machines at the local hospital, his invention of an electric radiator and its adoption by G.E.C., all prior to the first world war. Finally he gives an account of the hydroelectric scheme at Cyfartha from around 1930.

 

Early Electrical Systems in Collieries, The Trafalgar Colliery in the Forest of Dean and the Brain Family.

Proceedings of the Third I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1975.

The Brain family provided the initiative and expertise for some pioneering electrical developments, mainly at the Trafalgar Colliery in the Forest of Dean. This included the use of electrical signalling, blasting and fuse manufacture as well as electric lighting, winding, pumping and ventilation. The wealth of reporting in the technical press of the day and in learned societies reflects the importance of the activities of this family.

 

Electricity from Town Refuse Three Quarters of a Century Ago.

Electronics & Power, Vol 22, p16/20, January 1976.

The burning of refuse to provide steam for electricity generation at the beginning of the 20th century is described. The basic requirements of such a scheme are stated and some performance figures from actual stations are quoted. Surprise is expressed that using refuse in this manner is now seen as a very modern development when over 40 stations were built and operated during the period described.

 

Refuse Destructors & their use for Generating Electricity: A Century of Development.

Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol 2, No 1, p5/27, Autumn 1977.

The current interest in incinerating refuse is compared with the popularity of incinerators or ‘destructors’ in the last quarter of the 19th century. The necessary features of the early destructors are described and the economics of examples at Oldham and Southampton are examined. The use of steam raised by destructors was used for such items as public bath heating but its use for generating electricity was not successful as would be expected due to the great variability of the electric load, leading to the use of storage facilities such as superheated steam storage or batteries for d.c stations. Examples of operating procedures and economics are given for Shoreditch, Gloucester and Hackney. It is obvious from the number of stations built that combined refuse destructors and electricity generating stations were popular and economic until the First World War. After this time the shift to much larger generating stations and the great increase in demand for electricity are seen as reasons for the demise of the destructors. The industrial archaeological aspects of destructors are discussed with a number of photographs of surviving buildings. The Appendix lists those destructors built in United Kingdom before 1912.

 

Electricity Generating Stations for Public Supply in the West Midlands, 1888-1977.

West Midland Studies, Vol 10, p8/28, 1977.

A survey of all the generating stations which have provided a public electricity supply in the West Midlands is presented. It covers the full span of generating stations from the earliest installation, giving exact locations, and reporting on those which have survived at least as buildings. An outline of their history and the undertakings which operated them is provided, together with some photographs of surviving early generating stations as they appear now.

 

Electricity from Town Refuse: The St.Pancras Fiasco, 1893-1900.

Proceedings of the Sixth I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, p94/9, July 1978.

The planning and design of a combined refuse destructor and electricity generating station at St,Pancras in 1893/5 are described and compared with what happened in practice when the station was operational. It is shown that the combined station never worked because the refuse furnaces could not supply the necessary steam for generation (nor could they cope with the amount of refuse supplied). These problems are shown to be compounded because the local authority ignored all professional advice, relying instead on their own judgement or that of their employees.

 

History of Technology.

Chapter 46: Electronic Engineering. Vol 7. p1091/1125, 1978.

Edited by T.I.Williams, Published by Oxford University Press.

[Co-author: J.R.Tillman]

This chapter of the History of Technology concentrates on the history of the fundamental devices, circuits and basic systems of electronic engineering. Starting with the invention of the thermionic valve, the development of diodes, triodes, and pentodes is traced in circuits used for rectification, amplification, and oscillation generation. Other devices such as photoelectric cells, cathode ray tubes, and microwave devices are covered, as is circuit and system theory. The latter half of the chapter is devoted to solid state devices such as rectifiers and transistors, without forgetting the passive devices namely resistors, capacitors, inductors and transformers.

 

Crabtree: A Pioneer of Business Management.

Business History, Vol 21, No 2, p198/212, July 1979.

[Co-author: A.L.Minkes]

In the few years prior to his death in 1935 Mr Crabtree made an effort to write a book concerning the building and management of a business based on his practical knowledge. This paper provides a running commentary on this manuscript which gives a portrait of an entrepreneurial character as well as some simple but often forgotten fundamental points in business management. The four main areas covered are the problems of the inception of a business; the phasing of the problems of growth; the response to increasing size and complexity; and the strategy and control necessary in a small to medium size manufacturing business. Mr.Crabtree’s down to earth approach makes many of today’s management consultants and gurus appear superfluous.

 

The History of Electrical Engineering: Industrial Archaeology and the I.E.E.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 126, No 9, p861/2, September 1979.

This editorial was produced for a special edition of the Control & Science Record of the I.E.E. It mentions the archives available that concern the history of Electrical Engineering and stresses the differing approaches taken in the U.S.A. to that in this country. It concludes by stating that the aim of this special record of historical contributions of electrical engineers is for the enjoyment of the general membership of the IEE.

 

Rural Electrification: The Pioneering Scheme of the Hereford Corporation (1918-1928).

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 51, p111/28, 1979-80.

At the end of first World War, Hereford had the opportunity to use a large steam powered generating plant that had originally been built to power an ordnance factory which was closed at the end of the war. Due mainly to the enthusiasm of W.T.Kerr, the corporation’s electrical engineer, a scheme was proposed to distribute this power to the rural areas of the county for agricultural use. The original costings are examined and the delays and emasculation of the scheme are explored. The scheme failed and was eventually taken over by the Shropshire, Worcestershire & Staffordshire Electric Power Company. The reasons for failure are outlined, but the blame does not fall entirely on Mr.Kerr.

 

The Purpose and Principles of Research in an Electrical Manufacturing Business of a Moderate Size, as stated by J.A.Crabtree in 1930.

History of Technology, Vol 7, p77/87, 1982.

This article comprises an abridgement of two chapters about the role of research, in what was intended to be a comprehensive textbook on business management, prepared in 1930. Its author was J.A.Crabtree, who founded an electrical manufacturing company in 1919, which was successful and expanded to about 1000 employees (it was still in existence in 1982). The extract covers Crabtree’s views on the principles of research and the essentials of research policy. These ideas are even more valid in today’s competitive marketplaces.

 

Sir William Preece (1834-1913).

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 53, p119/38, 1982.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

The Generation of Electricity from Refuse: An Historical Introduction.

Proceedings of the Eleventh I.E.E. Weekend meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering. p1/4, 1983.

This short paper is an introduction to the use of incinerators, or destructors, to burn urban rubbish in the last quarter of the 19th century and the application of the heat produced to generate electricity.

 

Kapp, Gisbert.

Dictionary of Business Biography, p558/61,1985.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

Preece, Sir William Henry (1834-1913): Consulting Electrical Engineer.

Dictionary of Business Biography, p766/9, 1986.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

A New Archive of Gisbert Kapp Papers with Special Reference to his Autobiography.

Proceedings of the Seventeenth I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, July 1989.

(For summary see under BIOGRAPHY)

 

Conference Report

The Swan Centenary IEE Colloquium ‘Lamps & Lighting: Past, Present and Future.’

The Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 113, p9, April 1979.

This report covers the lectures given on lighting technology from the discoveries of Swan and Edison up to modern times.

 

Book Reviews

Sir William Preece, F.R.S.: Victorian Engineer Extraordinary.

By E.C.Baker.

The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 46, No II, p572, 1976.

(See also under BIOGRAPHY)

 

Lucas: The First 100 years, Volume I The King of the Road.

By Harold Nockolds.

Electronics & Power, Vol 23, p71, January 1977.

(See also under ROAD TRANSPORT)

 

The Siemens Company: Its Historical Role in the Progress of Electrical Engineering.

By Sigfrid von Weiher.

Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 110, p10, March 1978.

 

Electricity before Nationalisation: A Study of the Development of the Electricity Supply Industry.

By Leslie Hannah.

Technology and Culture, Vol 21, p254/7,1980.

 

Electricity in Bristol.

By P.G.Lamb.

Bristol Industrial Archaelogical Society Journal, Vol 14, p37, 1981.

 

Männer der Funktechnik.

By Sigfrid von Weiher.

The Newcomer Bulletin, Vol 128, p18/9,1984.

 

 

EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES

Booklet

Ayrshire Hone-Stones.

Published by The Ayrshire Archaeological & Natural History Society, 47 Pages, 1983.

The general use of hone and whetstones is considered and the widespread export of this type of product is illustrated by tabulated data from the 1839 Customs Books. Also the various sources of hone stones are compared through contemporary reports with some notes concerning the locations of quarries in England and Wales. The location of the quarries, mines, and mills of the Water of Ayr and Tam O’Shanter hone works at Dalmore on the River Ayr are described. The history of the Water of Ayr stones is outlined from 1789 when it is claimed to have been founded, through the various families that owned the mines until they came into the ownership of the Montgomerie family, in 1876, who still control them today. Statistics are given on the production quantities for 20 years around 1900 together with details of the number of employees and the range of products produced. There is a description of the two mines that are still in production with details of the shafts and underground workings together with information on the steam engines used in the past and the modern all electric operation of today using electricity generated at the work’s own water turbine hydroelectric plant. There are Appendices giving the sources of scythe stones in England and also details of the types of Water of Ayr and Tam O’Shanter hones available in c.1915.

 

Articles

The Lead Industry in Britain and its Visible Remains.

Alta, Vol 11, p268/77, 1970.

This general article provides a potted history of the lead industry from Roman times through to the Industrial Revolution in such places as the North Pennines, Derbyshire, Wales and the Mendips. It comments on the processes involved, such as ore separation and smelting, and mentions the type of remains that can be seen of buddles, smelting mills with their chimneys and flue systems, and other buildings. Mention is made of the working and living conditions of the miners and the transport problems associated with the remote nature of the industry. A good range of photographs accompany the article.

 

The Slate Quarries of Easdale, Argyllshire, Scotland.

Post-Medieval Archaeology, Vol 10, p118,30, 1976.

The location of the slate industry on the west coast of Scotland is described but concentrates on the Slate Islands south-west of Oban, with a description of the geology of that locality. There is an historical outline of the activities of the Marble & Slate Company of Netherlorn set up by the Earl of Breadalbane and other members of the Campbell family in 1745. After the dissolving of this company in 1841 the break up in ownership, and the decline in output into the 20th century are discussed, with some details of labour relations and payment methods. The quarry remains are examined, especially the flooded quarry at Ellenabeich which was 250 feet below sea level. This was breached by a storm in 1881 and the results of a sounding survey of this flooded quarry are published. Descriptions of the remains of the various tramway systems in the various quarries and the remains of jetties, quays and harbours used for transporting the slates to market are presented. Finally some information concerning the workers housing provided by Lord Breadalbane is given. The Appendix provides a list of the Gaelic place names on Easdale Island together with an English translation. There are four photographs one of which shows an Easdale quarry during its working period.

 

The Slate Islands of Scotland: The History of the Scottish Slate Industry.

Business History, Vol 19, No 1. p18/36, January 1977.

The commercial history of the slate industry in Scotland is considered from is inception in 1745, through its growth and success during the 18th century, its fluctuating fortunes during the 19th century, and its decline and eventual demise due to natural disasters and market forces in the early 20th century. The main information concerns the Slate Islands, especially Easdale, with details of the companies involved and their production together with a comparison with the industry in the rest of Britain. Finally some details of the introduction of mechanisation is given.

 

The Slate Industry of Pembrokeshire and its Borders.

Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol 3, No 3, p203/27, Summer 1979.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

The slate Industry in south-west Wales is compared to that of North Wales in terms of output and numbers of employees as well as the relative qualities of the slate itself. Over 100 quarries are identified in the Pembrokeshire area and a Gazetteer is produced with some information about 97 of these sites. Greater detail of information is then provided on seven of the more interesting sites giving details of galleries, tramways, building remains, etc. One slate quarry at Summerton is singled out for a more extended treatment as the evidence and remains of the leat system for the application of water power is described and the position of wheelpits and two distinct phases of operation are reviewed. The descriptions of some of the more interesting quarries are illustrated with large scale Ordnance Survey maps dating from 1888 when the quarries were in their heyday.

 

The Old Slate Industry of Pembrokeshire and Other Parts of South Wales.

The National Library of Wales Journal, Nol 23, p141/74, 1983.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

The slate industry of south-west Wales existed from the late 18th century through into the 20th century. The history of the major quarries is outlined together with details of the workforce and its rates of pay. Information concerning the various sizes and prices of the slates produced are given as are details and prices of slab products. The methods used by speculators to set up a slate company are reviewed and the career of John Davies, a Victorian promoter cum con-man is highlighted. The performance and longevity of the various companies involved in slate quarrying is examined and comparisons made between company and private-owner development. Tables are produced summarising the history of the eight largest quarries, the numbers and origins of the workers, the size, weight and prices of the various types of slates, and an alphabetical list of the companies involved in slate quarrying in Pembrokeshire.

 

 

HYDRO-ELECTRICITY

Articles

The Hydro-Electric Power Station for the Greenside Lead Mine Westmorland, c 1890.

Proceedings of the 1st I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, p7.l/7.8. July 1973.

This remarkable hydro-electric system was installed only 10 years after the first-ever hydro-electric system at Cragside, Northumberland. Details are provided about the 100 H.P. Vortex turbine by Gilbert Gilkes & Co. Ltd. together with the additional 100 H.P. Pelton wheel added in 1908 and the 300 H.P. Pelton wheel that replaced the Vortex turbine in 1911. The type of cable used and the motors for winding and pumping are described, as is the electric locomotive that worked in the mine for nearly 40 years. Information on the regulation of the turbines and the costs and manning arrangements are provided briefly but the arrangement of the water supply is covered in greater depth.

 

Half a Century of Hydro-Electricity at Monmouth: The Early Days of Electricity Supply.

Journal of the Monmouthshire Local History Council, Vol 37, p27/38, Spring 1974.

This article is based on reports published originally in The Electrial Engineer and The Electrician and on the memories of two former workers at the plant. The original proposals for a combined electricity supply and sewerage pumping station are described and details of the various tenders and modifications to the scheme are outlined. The criticisms caused by the delays in construction coupled with financial problems of the council in funding the project are explained. After completion of the project, some 10 years after first being proposed, some of the operating difficulties and production costs are highlighted and the generating plant and distribution system is described. Further additions to the generating station and some of its later history are also mentioned.

 

Hydro-Electricity for Public Supply in Britain, 1881-1894.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 123, No 10, p1026/34, October 1976.

The general background to the introduction of electric generating stations, especially water powered stations, is outlined with some comparison to practice in the U.S.A. The first 8 hydro-electric stations for public supply in Britain are identified and descriptions of the generating plant, distribution, and performance of the various schemes are given. The station at Worcester. built at Powick on the River Teme in 1894, is covered in greater detail, being the largest and most successful of the eight stations involved. Information is provided on the initial requirements, the various tenders, and the financial estimates. A technical description of the turbines and alternators of the plant is provided with some data concerning the early operating experiences. The inadequacy of the water power and the criticisms of the scheme are highlighted as well as the effect of the electrification of tramways in Worcester. Conclusions are provided on the limited success of these stations and the under-ambition of the original proposals.

 

Hydro-Electricity for Public Supply in Britain, 1881-1894.

Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol 1, No 2, p126/63, Spring 1977.

Although most of the early public electric generating stations were driven by steam engines the first eight schemes powered by water are described culminating in the 400kw station at Worcester. Details of the various schemes are given, including an early pump storage arrangement at Lynmouth, but greater detail is provided on the Worcester station, where the arrangements, construction and opening are described, coupled with a technical description. Details of the early operating experience together with information concerning staff and personalities are also provided.

 

The Early Years of Hydro-electricity for Public Supply in Devon.

The Devon Historian, Vol 15, p21/32, October 1977.

Three schemes for generating hydro-electric power are described. The first at Okehampton where an existing water powered sawmill was converted in 1889 to provide electricity, which remained in use until 1937. The second scheme is the Lynmouth station of 1890 which was purpose built supplying up to 440Kw, with a pumped storage system to provide for peak load times. This system only went out of use due to the floods of 1952. The third system was at Chagford in 1891 where a woollen mill was converted to generate electricity from the waterwheel, later being replaced by a turbine, which was still operative at the publication date. Three abortive systems, at Exeter in 1882, Plymouth in 1891, and Tiverton in 1890 are also described.

 

Nineteenth Century Hydro-electric Railways in the U.K.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 24, p16/21, 1978.

Attention is drawn to five electric railways in the U.K. at the end of the 19th century that used water power to generate their electric traction. The five railways, namely:- Portrush to Bushmills and the Giant’s Causeway; Bessbrook to Newry, both in Northern Ireland; Carstairs Junction to Carstairs House in Scotland; Greenside Lead Mine near Ullswater, England; and Douglas to Ramsey on the Isle of Man are described and set in their historical background. Also some basic literature is listed for further information.

 

From Mill to Megawatt: The First Half-century of Hydro-electricity.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 8, p26/43, 1988.

The early history of hydro-electric installations in Britain during the 1880s and 90s is described and tables are provided of those schemes for public supply, for industry, and for private houses and estates built during this period. Greater detail is given of the schemes in the Midlands at Wickwar, Fladbury, Blockley and Worcester and of the abortive schemes including Burton and Bromsgrove. The major industrial hydro-electric plants at Greenside lead mines and Foyers aluminium smelting plant are described together with early plants in Europe and North America, notably at Lauffen on the Rhine, Niagara Falls in the U.S.A., and in Quebec. The importance of the development of long-distance power transmission in 1892 to the viability of hydro-electric generation is stressed. The developments in Britain during the first third of the 20th century are examined, especially the Galloway hydro-electric scheme in Scotland.

 

Tidal Power: From Tidemill to Severn Barrage.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 9, p15/39, 1989.

The power available from the tides is set against the distinct disadvantages inherent in tidal power. The history of tidal power is mentioned briefly and the early proposals for electricity generation in relation to the Severn Estuary in the 1880s are discussed. The later proposals to utilise the Severn Estuary after 1920 are compared with proposals to use tidal power in other estuaries elsewhere. The proposal for the Severn Barrage in the 1980s is described as is the Energy Paper 46 of 1981. Further discussion is provided concerning the constructional methods to be used and the environmental factors that had to be considered. The Appendices describe the inter-war proposal of 1933 including a high-level pumped storage facility in the Angidy valley not far from Tintern, the low-level pumped storage proposal of 1970, and the C.E.G.B. continuous-generation scheme of 1973-4.

 

 

ICELAND

Articles

The History of Industries & Crafts in Iceland.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 9, p5/27, 1972.

The development path of industry in Iceland is outlined and some details of the source materials available are mentioned. Brief details of the major industries such as fishing, agriculture, metal working, textiles and rope making, food containers, buildings, boat building, transport, printing, power generation, and electrical communications are given.

 

The Stockfish Industry in Iceland: Living Industrial Archaeology.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 9, p172/6, 1972.

The process of producing stockfish by air drying is described together with its origins in the middle ages when there was considerable trade with Britain. The current commercial situation is explained which shows that the whole stockfish trade is dying out.

 

Windmills & Watermills in Iceland.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 9, p278/84, 1972.

The discovery of five pictures in the museums of Reykjavik showing windmills leads to the conclusion that there was one or possibly two windmills at Reykjavik, and certainly one on the island of Vigur, in the 19th century. Using the evidence of these pictures the size and shape of the windmills are determined and their location is very nearly pinpointed. The only watermill depicted is of the Shetland type of horizontal mill but references to woollen mills driven by water power are also discussed.

 

Railways in Iceland.

Industrial Railway Record, Vol 4, No 42, p216/9, April 1972.

The proposals for a railway from Reykjavik to the southern lowlands of Iceland in 1914, 1924, and 1927 are reported on together with mention of some of the works railways at ports and factories. The only substantial railway in Iceland built for the reconstruction of Reykjavik harbour and its steam engines is described briefly.

 

The Reykjavik Harbour Railway.

Industrial Railway Record, No 77, p250/2, June 1978.

A map of the 90cm gauge, 12km long, railway built in 1913 to construct the harbour in Reykjavik is produced utilising lcelandic sources. Details of the two steam engines, PIONÉR and MINØR, are given and the fact that MINØR was rediscovered in an old shed in 1973 is noted. The changes that took place between 1918 and 1920 when the harbour was extended are described and a photograph of the engine MINØR is reproduced.

 

 

INLAND NAVIGATION

Articles

The Wye Tour, The Paul Pry, and Steam on the Wye.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol 1, No 3, p71/2, Spring 1971,

(For summary see under STEAM)

 

Fireless Steam Tugboats for Canal Tunnels.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 26, p81/5, November 1980.

(For summary see under STEAM)

 

The Royal Commission on London Traffic 1903-5: The Proposed North Metropolitan and Regent’s Canal Monorail.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society. Vol 28, p197/202, 1985.

(For summary see under RAILWAYS)

 

 

METALS

Articles

The Lead Industry in Britain and its Visible Remains.

Alta, Vol 11, p268/77,1970.

(For summary see under EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES)

 

Power at Lower Redbrook on Wye in the Early 19th Century.

Journal of the Gloucester Society for lndustrial Archaeology p59/66,1971.

(For summary see under MILLS)

 

The Wireworks at Tintern and Whitebrook.

Proceedings of the Historical Metallurgy Group, 8th annual conference, Cardiff p1/16, September 1972.

The mills and ponds at Tintern and in the Angidy valley are identified and located on a map. The early history of the 16th century wireworks is discussed, as well as the technology of wire making at that time. Further detail is provided about the later use of the mills in the 18th & 19th centuries. The current remains of these industries are described and the article concludes with details of the Whitebook wireworks which was a subsidary of the Tintern concerns. Detailed maps of the various sites are included.

 

Fumes, Flues, Condensers, and Chimneys in Lead Smelting.

Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, Vol 6, No 2. p1/6, 1972.

The methods of condensing the fumes from lead smelting are discussed in relation to Percy’s treatise of 1870, and the wide variety of arrangements used in practice is illustrated by examples from remains of English smelting mills. Questions are posed regarding the reasons for this variety.

 

The Wireworks Tramway and Bridge at Tintern.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol 2, p53/5, Winter 1972/3.

[Co-author: H.W.Paar]

(For summary see under RAILWAYS)

 

The Seventeenth Century Wireworks Sites at Whitebrook, Monmouthshire.

Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, Vol 7, No 1, p28/35, 1973.

Although the existence of wireworks at Whitebrook is beyond doubt, their exact location is uncertain. Evidence from contemporary documents and maps is examined alongside the remaining field evidence still available. The conclusion that up to five sites were once used for wire making is reached with some indication of their likely locations.

 

The Old Wireworks and Ironworks of the Angidy Valley at Tintern, Gwent.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 9, No 1, p1/14, 1975.

[Co-author: H.W.Paar]

The early history of iron and wire making at Tintern from its inception in 1566 is covered briefly. As information has already been published on the 16th and 17th centuries the article focusses on the 18th and 19th centuries. The layout of various sites in the valley are described and detailed plans based on an 1821 map are published. Descriptions of the industrial archaeology to be found including remains of blast furnaces, iron works, forges, and wireworks are given. Appendix 1 gives the names of all the various lessees of the iron works from 1566 until their close in 1901. Appendix 2 gives details at the schedule of machinery, etc., present at 14 different sites in the valley in 1821.

 

The Technology of Wire Making at Tintern, Gwent, 1566-cl880.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 11, p15/24, 1977.

[Co-author: H .W.Paar]

The sparse and fragmentary evidence concerning the technology in use at various times for making wire at Tintern is examined and related to known developments elsewhere. The processes used at Tintern are speculated upon, not just that of wire drawing, but the associated processes of watering, scouring and annealing. Also details of the productivity of the works in the 17th century are given.

 

The Beginning of the Wireworks at Whitebrook, Gwent, in the early 17th Century.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society Vol 12, p102/3, 1978.

This article concerns the finding of the original lease of land at Whitebrook to the Society of Mineral and Battery Works based at Tintern. This lease clearly gives the beginning of occupation of the land at Whitebrook as 1606, and the author is able to interpret the lease to determine the boundaries of the wireworks land and identify the location of the work houses.

 

Metallurgy in the Wye Valley and South Wales in the late 18th Century: New information about Redbrook, Tintern, Pontypool, and Melingriffith.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 15, p94/100, 1981.

[Co-author: Peter Wakelin]

This article discusses two documents discovered in the National Library of Wales, one is a diary of a journey through the Wye Valley and parts of Monmouthshire in 1782, and the other is a printed book of 1775 interleaved with manuscript descriptions. Contemporary descriptions are given of the operation of the copper works at Redbrook with details of making cannon, crushing iron slag, and the replacement of bellows by blowing cylinders at Tintern. This is followed by details of the reverberatory furnaces, slitting mills, and the winning of iron ore by hydraulic means at Pontypool. Considerable evidence is produced to justify the dating of one of the manuscripts to 1782. Finally the transcript of the technical appendix of this document is provided giving accounts of the copper works, iron works, and tin plate working, together with a transcript of notes from the other document concerning the iron and wireworks at Pontypool and Tintern.

 

 

MILLS

Booklets

Watermills of the Monnow & Trothy & their Tributaries.

Published by Monmouth District Museum Service, 60 pages, 1978.

[Co-author: S.D.Coates]

The Monnow and the Trothy are tributaries of the River Wye which both join that river just below the town of Monmouth. The area under consideration is partly in Gwent (formerly Monmouthshire) and partly in Herefordshire. Basic information concerning about 90 mill sites is presented in the form of a gazetteer. The mills described comprise corn mills, textile and fulling mills, leather and tanning mills, paper mills, saw mills, iron works and forges, and finally hydro-electric generation. The gazetteer entries all give the relevant Ordnance Survey reference and details of the site at the time of publication, followed by some historical information. The locations have been determined by field work and confirmation derived from old maps and documents. The final chapter contains details of 23 possible watermill sites and three definite watermills whose sites were unable to be identified.

 

Watermills of the Middle Wye Valley.

Published by Monmouth District Museum Service, 71 pages, 1983.

[Co-author: S.D.Coates]

The area under consideration is effectively the catchment area of the River Wye between Monmouth and Hay-on-Wye with the exception of the rivers Lugg and Frome. Basic information concerning 152 sites is presented in the form of a gazetteer. The mills described are mainly corn mills although there are ten sites where waterwheel driven pumps were situated and there is a special chapter devoted to the various forges and other iron working sites within the specified area. The final chapter discusses the puzzling case of Ruardean Mill that once had a small water engine to pump back water after it had been used by the waterwheel for further use, various possible sites for the location of this mill are examined but no definite conclusion is reached.

 

Watermills of Radnorshire

Melin, Journal of the Welsh Mills Group, Vol 5, p1/77, 1989.

The watermills in Radnorshire are to be found mainly on the banks of the River Wye and its tributaries upstream of Hay-on-Wye. Those mills to be found on the head waters of other rivers are excluded. Most of the mills described were corn mills although there were numerous ‘pandy’ or fulling mills in the eighteenth century and a few woollen and leather mills, together with one hydro-electric station. The information presented on each mill site in the gazetteer consists of the Ordnance Survey reference, parish name, and river or stream used; this is followed by some historical information based on tithe maps and apportionments, with other early large scale mapping of Radnorshire. In total 113 mills and their remains, all of which were visited, are described. There are plans and sections of tour of the mills and over 30 photographs.

 

Some Watermills of South-West Shropshire.

Published by Midland Wind and Water Mills Group, 92 Pages, 1991.

This booklet deals with those watermill sites to be found on the River Teme and its tribrutaries upstream of Ludlow, but including those in the town itself. The main tribrutaries that are covered are the Rivers Clun, Onny and Corve. Although most of the mills were corn mills some sites were used for iron furnaces and forges, as well as the occasional woollen and paper mill. The information presented on each mill site in the gazetteer consists of an Ordnance Survey reference, parish name, and other location details. This is followed by historical information about the site based on the tithe maps and apportionments and other large scale maps such as Isaac Taylor’s map of Hereford (1754) and Robert Baugh’s map of Shropshire (1808). Each site was visited by the author and all 115 sites are described in detail. There are nearly 50 photographs and some line drawings.

 

Articles

The Embanked Ponds of the Penallt-Whitebrook-Redbrook Area and their Industrial Uses.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol I, No 3, p51/8, Sping 1971.

The site of 35 ponds in the area of Penallt, Whitebrook, and Redbrook are identified. The history of the use of the ponds is described covering early wireworks and later paper mills as well as copper works, tinplate works and humble corn mills. A map and table are provided giving the Ordnance Survey Grid Reference for all 35 ponds together with their uses and current condition.

 

Power at Lower Redbrook on Wye in the Early 19th Century.

Journal of the Gloucester Society for lndustrial Archaeology, p59/66, 1971.

The leat from the Upper Redbrook to the tinplate works on the Lower Redbrook is described, Issue is taken with Dr.Hart, the author of a recently published book on the Industry of the Forest of Dean, on three counts. Namely the date of the building of the leat; its cross-section size; and the point at which the leat started on the Upper Redbrook. Further discussion on the use of water power vis a vis steam power at the tinplate works, citing various documents and maps, comes to no firm conclusion.

 

Mills, Ponds, and other Industrial Sites in the Llandogo and Tintem Parva Area.

Severn & Wye Review Vol 1, No 6, p123/5, Winter 1971/2.

The parishes of Llandogo and Tintern Parva are shown to have had very little industry, as only eight dammed ponds were found in the area, unlike the heavily industrialised areas directly north and south of the parishes. The eight ponds, and the remnants of six mills, are listed and their remains described. A map showing their locations is included.

 

Windmills & Watermills in Iceland.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 9, p278/84, 1972.

(For summary see under ICELAND)

 

The Paper Mills of Whitebrook, Monmouthshire

Archaeologia Cambrensis, Vol 121, p80/96, 1972-3.

There were five or six paper mills established on the Whitebrook in Monmouthshire between 1760 and the 1880s. The various sites are identified and described and the probable course of development outlined. The Appendix consists of a chronological summary of all the evidence regarding the history of these paper mills.

 

The Seventeenth Century Wireworks Sites at Whitebrook, Monmouthshire.

Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, Vol 5, No 1, p28/35, 1973.

(For summary see under METALS)

 

The First Paper Mill in Wales? Perthir Mill on the River Monnow.

The Monmouthshire Antiquary Vol 3, p155/8, 1972-3.

The first paper mill in Wales is generally accepted to be Rullins Mill on the River Monnow in Monmouthshire, The evidence for this claim is cited but details of a lease from 1700 concerning corn mills and a paper mill at Perthir Mill also on the River Monnow in Monmouthshire are presented. Evidence shows this paper mill had disappeared by 1717. Although this information is claimed to show the earliest Welsh paper mill, doubt is also expressed due to there being a paper mill at Upper Redbrook in 1691. This uncertainty is raised because the Red Brook is the border between England and Wales and the side of the river on which the paper mill was sited is unknown, and so could have been in England rather than Wales.

 

The Old Wireworks and Ironworks of the Angidy Valley at Tintern, Gwent.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 9 No 1, p1/14, 1975.

[Co-author: H.W.Paar]

(For summary see under METALS)

 

Mills of the Monnow and Troddi Basins.

Journal of the Bristol Industrial Archaeology society, p29/32, 1975.

[Co-author: S.D.Coates]

The two small rivers, Monnow and Troddi, flow into the River Wye just below Monmouth. The types of mills on these rivers are described and the sources of information are given. A map is provided showing the position of 60 mills on these two rivers and the details of the thirteen most interesting mills are outlined.

 

The Technology of Wire Making at Tintern, Gwent. 1566-cl880

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 11, pl5/24, 1977.

[Co-author: H.W.Paar]

(For summary see under METALS)

 

The Beginning of the Wireworks at Whitebrook, Gwent, in the early 17th Century.

Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 12, p102/3, 1978.

(For summary see under METALS)

 

The Mills and Watercourses of the Beine Brook: An Introduction to the 1945 Script of the late H.E.S.Simmons.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 1, p30/44, 1980.

[Co-author: J.Briggs]

The full article written by H.E.S.Simmons in 1945 after personally visiting the mills is published for the first time. The Belne Brook rises in the south-east side of theClent Hills in north-east Worcestershire and joins the River Stour between Kidderminster and Stourport. The mills on its length were engaged mainly in scythe making and worked into the 1950s. To the historical information provided by Simmons the authors have added details of the Ordnance Survey reference of each site, notes concerning the current condition of the sites, and diagrams of the watercourse and pond arrangements. In addition the details of three sites missed by Simmons in 1945 are provided.

 

Uncertain Future for Stoke Prior Mill, near Bromsgrove.

Midland Wind and Water Mills Group Newsletter, No 7, p8/9, Autumn 1980.

This report concerns the deadlock between the Stoke Prior parish council and Clement Displays Ltd. the owners of Stoke Prior Mill, concerning the future of the mill. The conclusion given is that the mill is not historically or technologically important, consequently the mill does not need to be preserved.

 

Townsend Mill, Bromsgrove.

Midland Wind and Water Mills Group Newsletter, No 7, p9, Autumn 1980.

This report concerns the deadlock between Bromsgrove District Council and the owners of Townsend Mill in Bromsgrove. There is a proposal to rescue the mill by transporting and re-erecting it on another site for its preservation but the council continue to delay making any decision.

 

The H.E.S.Simmons Archive.

Midland Wind and Water Mills Group Newsletter, No 8, p9/10, Spring 1981.

This note outlines the scale of the H.E.S.Simmons Mill Archive in the Science Museum, consisting of 240 files of notes, various maps and over 2000 photographs. The note cites the number of mills covered in the counties of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, and Staffordshire. It also lists those mills from these counties that have photographs in the archive.

 

Metallurgy in the Wye Valley and South Wales in the late 18th Century: New Information about Redbrook, Tintern, Pontypool, and Melingriffith.

Joumal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol 15, p94/100, 1981.

[Co-author: Peter Wakelin]

(For summary see under METALS)

 

Watermills of the River Salwarpe and its Tributaries: Part 2. The System outside Bromsgrove.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 3, p2/18. 1982.

From the boundary of the parish of Bromsgrove the River Salwarpe runs south-west to join the River Severn. Descriptions are given, in the form of a gazetteer, of 24 watermill sites on the River Salwarpe and its tribrutaries together with their Ordnance Survey references. The history of each site is also described being based on evidence from maps, the Tithe Awards of 1840, and the researches of H.E.S.Simmons into old newspapers and magazines. Details are provided concerning the individual mill watercourses and the overall river management.

 

Watermills & Waterpowered works on the R.Stour, Worcestershire & Staffordshire: Part 1. Stourport & Kidderminster.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 4, p5/20, 1983.

[Co-author: H.W.Gwilliam]

The nine watermill sites between Kidderminster and the confluence of the River Stour with the River Severn are described in the form of a gazetteer and Ordnance Survey references are given for each site. These mills were largely concerned with the iron industry being forges, slitting mills, wire works, etc. The historical information provided is derived from the H.E.S.Simmons archive and the use of maps, Tithe Awards, etc. A number of detailed maps of the watercourse systems supplying the mills are published together with the reproduction of some old, large scale Ordnance Survey maps.

 

Watermills and Water-powered Works on the River Stour, Worcestershire & Staffordshire: Part 3. Stourbridge, Lye and Cradley.

Wind and Water Mills,VoI6, p11/21, 1985.

The various sites where waterpower has been used on the headwater streams of the River Stour above the confluence with the Smestow Brook are identified and were located on the ground. The principle waterpowered industries of the area were iron making and refining, wire making, and edge tool making. A gazetteer is provided giving historical information about each site together with details of the current state of the sites. All the sites are identified by Ordnance Survey references and some contemporary large scale plans of some of the sites are reproduced.

 

The Mills of the Lugg Valley in Radnorshire.

Melin, Journal of the Welsh Mills Group, Vol 1, p48/66, 1985.

On that part of the River Lugg in Radnorshire, 21 waterpowered sites are identified in and around the town of Presteigne, and Ordnance Survey references given for each one. Each site was visited by the author and current state is described in the form of a gazetteer. Some historical information on each site is given based on the Tithe Awards and the various large scale maps that have been produced for the area in the past.

 

Mills of the Upper Arrow Valley in and near Kington, Herefordshire.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 7, p24/37, 1986.

The River Arrow rises in the hills of Southern Radnorshire then flows through Kington to join the River Lugg. Some 21 watermill sites are identified the upper half of the River Arrow and its tribrutaries and Ordnance Survey references given for each one. Most of the mills were corn mills however there was a woollen mill, water-pumping station, a foundry cum laundry, a forge and hydro-electric station. Historical information is provided, together with a detailed description of the current state of each site, in the form of a gazetteer.

 

Pierre-Theophile Berton and his Windmill Sails.

Wind & Water Mills, Vol 14, p48/56, 1995.

[Original author: Christian Cussonneau; Co-translator Alan Gifford]

This article was originally published by the Association des Amis des Moulins de l’Anjou in French in 1987. It concerns the unique patent method providing automatic control of windmill sails using boards that lie parallel to stocks and the trials and tribulations of Berton in marketing this invention. The first rough translation was provided by Gordon Tucker and further improved by Alan Gifford. It was published posthumously after the death of Gordon Tucker.

 

Book Reviews

Some Recent Books on Mills.

Midland Wind and Water Mills Group Newsletter; No 7, p6/7, Autumn 1980.

 

The Mills of Medieval England

By Richard Holt

Midland Wind and Water Mills Group Newsletter; No 32, p12/3, 1988.

 

 

MILLSTONES

Articles

Millstone Making at Penallt, Monmouthshire.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 8, p229/39, 1971.

Field investigations show that there were five quarries in the parish of Penallt that produced both millstones for grinding corn, and runner stones for crushing apples for cider, which were made from the local conglomerate rock. Various examples are described of abandoned, part-worked stones that were found and the scale of the industry is estimated from entries in the parish register. It is concluded that the industry ended in the late 19th century.

 

Millstone Making in Gloucestershire: Wm.Gardner’s Gloucester Millstone Manufactory.

Journal of the Gloucester Society for lndustrial Archaeo/ogy, p6/16, 1973.

Two different kinds of millstone makers in Gloucestershire are studied. William Gardner developed from a maker of French burr stones, through mill machinery, to a general engineering company. Whereas Hudsons of Penallt were independent rural craftsmen specialising in monolithic Welsh stones that they sold to mills or other merchants such as Gardners. When their skills were no longer required they took up ordinary employment leaving no records other than an oral tradition.

 

Millstones, Quarries, and Millstone-makers.

Post-Medieval Archaeology, Vol 11, p1/21, 1977.

The various types of millstones (monolithic and fabricated, face-grinders and edge-runners) are discussed, together with sizes and shapes, manufacture, dressing, criteria of quality, etc. A list of known millstone quarry areas and individual quarries is given, with references to historical sources. Tables are presented giving the names, addresses, and dates of about 70 British firms which manufactured French-burr millstones in the 19th and early 20th centuries, together with a note of some of the location of surviving, identified examples of their work. This article is accompanied by 14 photographs.

 

Millstone making in Anglesey.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 1, p16/23,1980.

The positions of three small millstone quarries on Anglesey are determined from various sources and confirmed by actual visits to the sites. Details are given of the various remains of millstones still to be seen in the quarries. Information from the census returns provides information about the few families involved in the millstone trade. Verbal information confirms that the millstones were cut to shape prior to being detached from the rock and were then completed in the quarry. Transportation of the millstones was performed by a four wheeled frame waggon carrying one millstone in a vertical position with a pole through its eye.

 

Millstones.

S.P.A.B. Wind & Water Mills Section Newsletter, Vol 5, October 1980.

This is an exhortation to members to record millstones, their type, size, manufacture, origin, date, and any other salient facts. It describes how to tell the three most common types of millstones used in this country and the state of research on this topic to date.

 

Millstone making in France: When Épernon produced Millstones.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 3, p32/5, 1982.

This is a translation of an article published by the Fédération Française des Amis des Moulins in 1980. It concerns the quarrying of millstones in Épernon near Chartres, west of Paris, and their involvement in the Socié Génerale Meulière based at La Ferté sous Jouarre, east of Paris. Some details of the working conditions in the quarries is given and also the events from 1939 to the quarries’ closure in 1958 are retold from aural evidence.

 

Millstones North and South of the Scottish Border.

Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol 6. No 3, p186/93, 1982.

The considerable differences in the practices of millstone making in Scotland and England and Wales are discussed with concentration on the segmentation of French burr stones and the use in Scotland of centre-pieces of indigenous rock. Also discussed are the monolithic and segmented millstones made from indigenous rock, with particular reference to Kaim Hill stones quarried in Ayrshire. Numerous examples of segmented millstones are reproduced in drawings.

 

The Dressing of Millstones: English Practice as described by Bryan Corcoran in 1882.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 5, p24/6, 1984.

This article reproduces part of a paper read by Mr.Bryan Corcoran in 1880 entitled ‘Modern Milling’. Some information is provided concerning Mr.Corcoran’s background and his family’s involvement in millstone making for over 100 years. Details provided cover the shape of the eye of the runner stone and the swallow present towards the centre of the runner stone. There are also details about the cutting of the furrows and the drift or eccentricity of the furrows. Of much importance is the information that removes any confusion about the direction of rotation of a millstone with respect to its dressing.

 

Millstone Making in Scotland.

Proceedings of the Society for Antiquities of Scotland, Vol 114, p439/556, 1984.

The two types of Scottish millstones are discussed. The making of segmented millstones from French burr stones in urban manufacturies are described and a table of all known manufacturers is given. The rural manufacture of millstones made from indigenous rock is also described with a table of 25 known sites of millstone quarries. The known historical information and details of existing remains is given for each of these quarries, although only Kaim Hill and Abbey Craig were of significant importance. A list of other place names in Scotland with the word ‘millstone’ are provided for further study.

 

Millstone Making in the Peak District of Derbyshire.

Industrial Archeology Review, Vol 8, No 1. p42/58. Autumn 1985.

The millstone grit of the Peak District provided the greatest supply of millstones made of native rock in Britain. The various quarries are listed and described as completely as possible, including the types of millstones made over the centuries, and deductions are made from the archaeological remains of the process by which they were made. Ancillary topics such as tools, smithies, transport and mason’s marks are briefly touched on, and the Bole Hill Quarry Railway and its possible connections with the millstone industry is briefly described. There are numerous photographs of the millstone remains and the Appendix lists all the millstone-making areas together with their Ordnance Survey references.

 

Millstone Making in England.

Industrial Archeology Review, Vol 9, No 2, p167/88. Spring 1987.

A general account is first given of the development of the millstone industry, particularly during the last two or three centuries, and its division into two distinct parts; the making of monolithic millstones from indigenous rock in rural quarries and workshops; and the fabrication of millstones from imported pieces of French burr stones in urban factories. The import and export trade associated with these activities, and the cost of millstones, is discussed. Augmented data on English quarries which made monolithic millstones outside the Peak District is presented. Finally data on the many firms of urban millstone makers is given and discussed where information previously published can be significantly augmented.

 

A Fourteenth Century Millstone Transaction: An Awful Warning about quoting Secondary Sources.

Wind and Water Mills, Vol 8 p18/21,1988.

In a previous article the cost of five millstones in the 14th century was given, quoted from a well known secondary source. Since publication a translation of the original Latin had been found which showed that the figure given was for each millstone. The trail of mistakes is outlined and a complete translation of the source is given. Finally there is an exhortation to always check back to the primary source!

 

MINING

Booklet

Ayrshire Hone - Stones.

Published by Ayrshire Archaeological & Natural History Society, 47 pages, 1983.

(For summary see under EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES)

 

Articles

The Story of Wheal Guskus in the Parish of Saint Hilary.

Journal of the Trevithic Society, Vol 1, p49/62, 1973.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

Wheal Guskus was a fairly small and not very successful mine which had an independent existence only from 1850 to 1858. During this period the mine was under the control of the Francis family and its history can be traced in documents and letters now at the National Library for Wales. These family letters give a rather different story from the official reports of the time. Details of the shareholding, capital equipment and operation of the mine are described and the financial problems that led to its demise are outlined.

 

The Hydro-Electric Power Station for the Greenside Lead Mine Westmorland, c 1890.

Proceedings of the I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Engineering, p7.1/7.8, July 1973.

(For summary see under HYDRO-ELECTRICITY)

 

The Lead Mines of South-east Wales.

Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol 6. No I, p15/27, May 1975.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

The sites used for lead mining in Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are identified and their history examined. Much reference is made to the papers of the Francis family, who were mining engineers and agents during the 19th century, especially with respect to Bishopston Mine. Finally, details of the remains at the nine positively identified sites are described.

 

Early Electrical Systems in Collieries: The Trafalgar Colliery in the Forest of Dean and the Brain Family.

Proceedings of the 3rd I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, p12.1/12.11, July 1975.

(For summary see under HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING)

 

A Hitherto-unrecorded Lead Mine at Garple Bridge near Balmaclellan, Kirkcudbrightshire.

Transactions of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History & Artiquarian Society. Vol 52, p179/81, 1976-7.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

Among the unsorted papers relating to the Francis family held at the National Library of Wales the authors discovered a map showing a lead mine at Garple Bridge on the River Garple in Scotland. Other letters from this archive are quoted showing that the mine was operative during a visit by Henry Francis in 1847, but as no further information is known about the mine it is presumed to have been unsuccessful.

 

The Lead Mines of Glamorgan and Gwent.

Morgannwg, Journal of Glamorgan History, Vol 20, p37/52, 1977.

A general view is given of the lead mining activities in Glamorgan and Gwent prior to 1850, covering the period of most activity in the 16th century. The resurgence in lead mining in the mid-nineteenth century with respect to Bishopston, Llangan, and Caerphilly regions is described. A list of known sites is provided together with a list of those not yet located. This article provides additional information which has become available.

 

The Sacking of the Francises by John Taylor 1841-2.

British Mining, Vol 5, p14/I8, 1977.

[Co-author: Mary Tucker]

The relationship between the Francis and Taylor families involved in the management of metal mines in Cardiganshire is explored. Although originally cordial, letters in an unsorted collection at the National Library of Wales shows that the relationship cooled in the early 1840s. Absolom Francis had been dismissed by April 1841 and his nephew Matthew was also dismissed in July 1842. Speculation is made that the Francises’ shares in rival mining companies could have upset the Taylors, or possibly Matthew Francis’s business habits were the cause. However as the letters give a onesided view and are incomplete the matter is left as a mystery.

 

New light on Llanfyrnach Lead Mine.

British Mining, Vol 11, p44/7, 1979.

Two puzzles are highlighted about the Llanfyrnach lead mines. The first, derived from the census returns, is the large increase in labour between 1861 and 1871. The puzzle is how these were recruited and trained as they were all local men. The second puzzle concerns the machinery at the mine. It has been stated that in 1855 a steam engine was installed but could not cope with the water. However, a sale of machinery in the previous year, due to the impending change to steam, sold not only the waterwheel pumps but all the equipment including the office furniture before knowing if the steam engine would be viable.

 

Book Review

Peakland Lead Mines and Miners.

By H.M.Parker & L.Willies, Published by Moorland Publishing Co.Ltd.

The Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 116, April 1980.

 

 

THE HISTORY OF RADIO

Articles

The History of the Homodyne and Synchrodyne.

Journal of the British institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 14. p143/54, April 1954.

Technical descriptions of the Homodyne and Synchrodyne are provided showing the demodulation of a.m. signals using local oscillators, synchronised in frequency to the carrier of the wanted signal, so as to modulate the received wave. This wanted signal is obtained immediately as an audio output without any further detection, all unwanted signals being completely rejected by a low pass filter in the audio output. The advantages of these circuits are given as high quality and high selectivity as they are demodulators of precision. The history of these circuits is provided over the preceding thirty years showing that they were not commercially used until the advent of colour television.

 

The Invention of Frequency Modulation in 1902.

Journal of the Institution of Electronic Radio Engineers, Vol 40, No 1, p33/7, July 1970.

It is demonstrated that the accounts in the literature of the early history of frequency modulation are very confused and contradictory. After demonstrating that Fessenden in his 1901 patent application almost certainly did not intend to have or to utilise f.m., but was concerned only with a.m., it is shown that the real inventor of f.m. was C.D.Ehret with his very clearly stated patent application of 1902.

 

The Invention of Frequency Modulation in 1902.

Proceedings of the Institution of Radio & Electronic Engineers of Australia, Vol 32, p8/ 12, January 1971.

For summary see previous article.

 

The Early History of Amplitude Modulation, Sidebands and Frequency-Division-Multiplex.

Journal of the Institution of Electronic & Radio Engineers, Vol 41, No 1, p43/7, January 1971.

It is shown that the ideas of f.d.m. originated with Alexander Graham Bell around 1870 and were formulated as a f.d.m. telephone system by Leblanc in 1886. Amplitude modulation of a carrier by speech probably originated with Leblanc also in 1886. The existence of sidebands was demonstrated by Mayer in 1875 but was rediscovered by early radio and telephone engineers about 1915. The main developments up to about 1920 are discussed.

 

The History of Positive Feedback: The Oscillating Audion, the Regenerative Receiver, & Other Applications up to around 1923.

Journal of the Institution of Electronic & Radio Engineers, Vol 42, No 2, p69/8O, February 1972.

The development of positive feedback, which played an important role during the 20 to 30 years following its application to electronic circuits in 1912 is described. The controversial inventions of 1912-15 are considered and some of the applications of positive feedback in self-oscillating detectors i.e. the autodyne, the homodyne, and the super-regenerative receivers, are examined.

 

Origins and Types of Radio Receivers.

Radio Receivers, Published by Peter Peregrinus for Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1986.

[Edited by W.Gosling]

The origins and practical developments of the principal processes involved in radio receivers up to the 1930s are described in this paper. It starts with the early Marconi coherer type of receiver, covers the introduction of the thermionic valve, multi-stage valve receivers, and the important application of feedback especially to super-regenerative and superhetrodyne receivers. Other phenomena explored are the use of sidebands and frequency modulation, which was originally invented as early as 1902.

 

Book Reviews

BBC Engineering 1922-1972.

By Edward Pawley.

Association for Industrial Archaeology Bulletin, Vol 2.5, p7, 1976.

 

Radio Wave Detectors.

By V.J.Philips, published by Peter Peregrinus.

Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol 51, p249, 1981.

 

 

RAILWAYS

Articles

Railways in Iceland.

Industrial Railway Record; Vol 4, No 42, p2l6/9, April 1972.

(For summary see under ICELAND)

 

Proposed Branches of the Monmouth Railway Company on the west of the River Wye, 1808-1810.

Journal of the Monmouthshire  Local History Council, Vol 34, p40/8, Autumn 1972.

The 1810 Act of Parliament for the Monmouth Railway Company describes two branch tramways to Penallt and Whitebrook. The steep gradient of the Penallt branch is assumed to signify that it was intended only for traffic from Penallt i.e. millstones; whereas the flatter Whitebrook branch would have carried materials to and from the paper works. Calculations show that these two tramways could never be commercially successful and so were not built, which begs the question of why they were proposed in the first place.

 

The Wireworks Tramway and Bridge at Tintern.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol 2, p53/5, Winter 1972/3.

[Co-author: H.W.Paar]

The Wye Valley Railway of 1872 was originally going to run entirely on the Monmouth side of the river and would hence pass through Tintern. It is explained that this plan was changed so that it actually ran a considerable distance on the Gloucestershire bank consequently the Duke of Beaufort, who owned the wireworks at Tintern, insisted on a branch line over the river to his works, stipulating the design of bridge to be used.

 

The Hydro-Electric Power Station for the Greenside Lead Mine Westmorland, C 1890.

Proceedings of the First I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, p7.1/7.8, July 1973.

(For summary see under HYDRO-ELECTRICITY)

 

Phonomore and Phonoplex, F.D.M. Telegraph Systems used on Railways in the late 19th Century.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 121, No 12, p1603/8, December 1974.

(For summary see under HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS)

 

Centenary of the Wye Valley Railway and the Railway History of Penallt.

Parish of Penallt Quarterly Newsletter; December 1976.

Although commemorating the centenary of the coming of the railway, it is seen to have had very little effect on the commerce of the Parish of Penallt. Mention is made of an early proposed horse tramway that would have had a greater effect if it had been built in 1810.

 

Nineteenth Century Hydro-electric Railways in the U.K.

Joumal of the Railways & Canal Historical Society, Vol 24, p16/21, 1978.

(For summary see under HYDRO-ELECTRICITY)

 

The Reykjavik Harbour Railway.

Industrial Railway Record, No 77, p250/2, June 1978.

(For summary see under ICELAND)

 

Emile Lamm’s Self-propelled Tramcars. 1870-72, and the Evolution of the Fireless Locomotive.

History of Technology, Vol 5, p103/17, 1980.

(For summary see under ROAD TRANSPORT)

 

The Maenclochog Railway, Pembrokeshire: A Contribution to its History.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 27, p30/I, July 1981.

[Co.author: Mary Tucker}

The Maenclochog Railway has been considered to have been closed in 1882. This article reproduces a newspaper report of 1884 describing the re-opening of the line for carrying slate and passengers. No indication is given as to when the line finally closed.

 

The Coalbrookdale Railway. 1767-68.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 27, p2/6, November 1981.

The problem of transcription of Joseph Banks original notes about the Coalbrookdale Railway are discussed. Previous transcription errors are considered to be responsible for mistakes in previously published descriptions of the rail type in use in 1767, which are corrected by this article. Although the rail type seems to have been developed originally on Tyneside, speculation is made, based on the likely distance between sleepers, and the Coalbrookdale accounts, that it is possible that the style first originated at Coalbrookdale.

 

The Listowel & Ballybunion Railway: Some Revisions and Additions to its Story.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 28, p2/13, 1984.

The Listowel & Ballybunnion Railway was built on the Lartigue monorail system for 10 miles in south-west Ireland. The article offers corrections to previous publications with respect to the various companies involved with the Lartigue system, and to discrepancies in details of operation, layout, and construction. These corrections are based on the Board of Trade reports on the railway by Major General Hutchinson in 1888, and a c.1920 cine film of the railway in operation. The Appendices reproduce the Board of Trade reports and also provides a mathematical appraisal of the turntable based junction points used by this type of system.

 

F.B.Behr’s Development of the Lartigue Monorail: From Country Crawler to Electric Express.

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 55, p131/52, 1984.

The early applications of the Lartigue monorail system to low cost agricultural uses are outlined. The collaboration of F.B.Behr with the Lartigue Railway Company and the Listowel & Ballybunnion Railway is covered, but the main part of this paper describes the design and trials of a high speed (over 100 m.p.h.) version for a proposed Manchester - Liverpool line in 1900. The problem faced in getting a necessary Act of Parliament is covered in detail. The reason for failure is blamed not on technical shortcomings but on the Board of Trade’s insistence on a successful trial before giving their approval, so preventing the raising of the required capital.

 

The Royal Commission on London Traffic 1903-5: The Proposed North Metropolitan and Regent’s Canal Monorail.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 28, p197/202, 1985.

The Royal Commission on London traffic in 1903-5 received a great many proposals. One proposal, which is the subject of this article, was made by F.B.Behr to provide an overhead, electric powered, monorail built on the Lartigue system. This line was to follow the line of the Grand Junction, Regent’s, and Hertford Union canals from Willesden in the north-west, to Victoria Dock in the East End. It was intended to have a small number of branches. The proposal was quite feasible technically with trains accommodating 172 passengers, travelling at 20 m.p.h., and a daily service of 330 trains in each direction. The costs of the overhead pylons for this type of system was quite low and the total cost was projected at only £1.2M. Unfortunately the traffic predictions were overly optimistic and the proposal made no impact on the commission.

 

Along the rails from Munster.

Cork Holly Bough, p20, 1987.

[Co-author: W McGrath]

This newspaper article mentions D.G.Tucker’s 1936 visit to the Schull and Skibereen narrow gauge railway in Ireland and reproduces two of his original photographs.

 

West Donegall Congested? Government-built Railways in Co. Donegal.

The Narrow Gauge, Vol 120. p1/7, Autumn 1988.

This article concerns the building of the 3 feet narrow gauge railway in Co. Donegal in Ireland under the provisions of the Congested Districts Acts of 1891. It is explained how West Donegal qualified even though sparsely populated because the land could not support the small population that existed. Details of the Letterkenny and Burtonport Extension Railway built in 1903 are given, together with details of the engines used. Reference is also made to two other railways in Donegal built under the provisions of this act, namely the Donegal to Killybegs and the Stranorlar to Glenties lines of 1893 and 1895 respectively. The article is accompanied by 10 photographs of steam trains and railcars taken on a visit in 1938 by Dr. Tucker and Charles Bayes, just prior to the line closing in 1940.

 

The Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway: Increased power provision 1927-1928.

The Narrow Gauge, Vol 121/122, p32/4, 1988-1989.

The solutions to the problem of steep gradients on the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway undertaken in 1927/8 are examined. The opening of the line as a 2ft 9ins mineral line in 1876, and its cessation of operations in 1913 is covered. Then the conversion to 15 inch gauge involving Bassett-Lowke and the model engineer Henry Greely using scale model engines is described. These proved lacking in power for the gradients of up to 1 in 40 and had to be used double-headed. The design of three new engines, named after local rivers, is recorded. Two of these being articulated engines with steam powered tenders for increased power. Unfortunately it is explained how these articulated engines were not a success and were withdrawn after a few years. The article is accompanied by four photographs of these engines taken by Dr. Tucker in 1936.

 

The Schull and Skibbereen Railway.

The Narrow Gauge, Vol 121/122, p41/6,1988-1989.

This article is in response to another article on the 3 ft gauge Schull and Skibereen Railway in Co. Cork, Ireland, which had recently been published, and consists of the official report to the Board of Trade by General Hutchinson of 2nd September 1886 prior to the railway’s opening. The report covers detail of the length of track, gradients, curves and the methods of line fixings used. It then continues by describing the bridges, both over and under the line, including a 12 span viaduct over the Ballydehob river. This is followed by details of the three stations, turntables, and rolling stock. The report concludes with a short list of outstanding requirements (including the fact that the station urinals should be screened!) and a list of mandatory stopping places and speed limits. The article ends by correcting some minor points in the previous article on this first railway built under the Tramway & Light Railway Act of 1883. The article is accompanied by 8 photographs mainly taken by Dr. Tucker In 1936.

 

 

ROAD TRANSPORT

Booklet

How Towns got Electric Light and Tramways: A Case Study of Gloucestershire and Neighbouring Towns.

Published by The Science Museum, 64 pages, 1978.

An account is given of how the five main towns of Gloucestershire came to consider, and decide, how to set up an electricity supply undertaking. The systems and plants eventually installed are recorded, as is the way that demand expanded. The proposals for electric tramways are also examined and the beginnings of the tramway undertakings are described. These developments are examined against the background of developments in Britain as a whole because the Gloucestershire region appears to have been a microcosm of the early British electricity scene.

 

Articles

The Trolleybus Proposal at Stroud, Glos., in 1903: The Stroud District & Cheltenham Tramways Bill.

The Journal of Transport History, Vol 4, No 1, p40/6, February 1977.

The Stroud District and Cheltenham Tramway Bill of 1903 is discussed, particularly its mixture of electric tramways and the use of electric trolley buses on low passenger density routes. If built this would have been the first scheme in Britain to use trolley buses. The reasons why this scheme did not reach fruition are surmised, especially its links with the Gloucestershire Electric Power Company.

 

Neath corporation tramways 1897-1920: An unusual tramway system using gas-engine propulsion.

Neath Antiquarian Society Transactions, p67/84, 1979.

The introduction of gas powered trams, using twin cylinder Otto engines, to Neath in 1899 is described in terms of the route, the tramcars, and the arrangement between the Neath Corporation and the operators of the tramway. The problems of operation, both technical and financial are examined including speculation as to the number and sources of tramcars. Finally the failure of the operating company and the replacement of the cars by petrol omnibuses is described. The article is accompanied by three contemporary photographs.

 

Neath Corporation Tramways 1897-1920: Part 1 & 2.

Tramway Review, Vol 14, p75/85, Autumn 1981, & p110/3, Winter 1981.

These two articles are the same as the previous article but without the references.

 

Emile Lamm’s Self-propelled Tramcars 1870-72 and the Evolution of the Fireless Locomotive.

History of Technology, Vol 5, p103/17, 1980

The first part of this article explains how Emile Lamm, an American dentist, tackled the problem of how to provide self-propulsion in a tramcar without producing smoke. It describes his initial idea of using ammonia in a theoretically efficient system but with severe practical problems, that used boiling calcium chloride solution to superheat water. This was followed by the much simpler, but less efficient method, that superheated water by passing steam through it and exhausting the used steam to the atmosphere. The second part explains Lamm’s patents by means of simple diagrams, whereas the third part covers the practical application and development undertaken in Belgium, Scotland and especially by Leon Francq in Paris.

 

Gas Trams at Croydon - the First in Britain.

Tramway Review, Vol 16, No 127, p213/21, 1986.

It is argued that the gas powered tram used in the trials at Croydon in late 1893 was of German origin, and that the one used in the 1894 trails was an improved English built model. The variety of companies named in previous publications and their roles is clarified. The Appendices cover the companies involved with gas trams in Britain; news of the finding and restoration of a gas tram at Neath; and details of gas trams used on the continent.

 

Book Review

Lucas: The First 100 years. Vol 1 The King of the Road.

By Harold Nockolds.

Electronics & Power, p71, January 1977.

 

 

STEAM POWER

Articles

The Wye Tour, The Paul Pry, and Steam on the Wye.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol 1, No 3, p71/2, Spring 1971.

The history of the Paul Pry, a small steamboat used on the R.Wye in the early 19th century is described and its confusion with other river craft of the same name explained.

 

Ljungstrorn Turbines Dead but not Buried.

I.E.E. News, p12, December 1976.

This report of a lecture by J.L.Wood of the Royal Scottish Museums contains a resumé of the history of radial flow turbines and their operation together with details of the discussions that took place after the lecture.

 

William Taylor’s Chain-and-drum Double-acting Steam Engine of 1798: The Redbrook Engine.

The Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 115, p10/2, December 1979.

The questions raised by the discovery of a drawing by William Taylor of a chain and drum double acting steam engine are explored, namely, was it ever built; if so, was it used at Redbrook Tinplate Works; and was it Taylor’s design? The evidence available is examined but is inconclusive.

 

Fireless Steam Tugboats for Canal Tunnels.

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Vol 26, p81/5, November 1980.

The idea of a vehicular ‘fireless’ steam engine operating off superheated water injected into containers on a vehicle at charging stations is explained. This idea of Emile Lamm, an American, was used by Leon Francq to power the tugs operating at the canal tunnels of Mauvages and Pouilly on the French canal system. The article contains a table of particulars of the Francq tugboats and one photograph taken in the late 1880s.

 

Emile Lamrn’s Self-propelled Tramcars 1870-72 and the Evolution of the Fireless Locomotive.

History of Technology, Vol 5, p103/17, 1980.

(For summary see under ROAD TRANSPORT)

 

 

THE HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Articles

Beginnings of Long-distance Telephony, 1882-87.

Economics & Power, vol 20, p825/7, October 1974.

The economic and technical difficulties facing long-distance telephony in 1882 are described especially as there was a worldwide telegraph network in existence. The success of the Van Rysselberghe system leading to the development of long-distance telephone networks in continental Europe long before Britain is outlined, and the theories developed by William Preece, erroneously, and Oliver Heavyside on long-distance transmission are expounded.

 

Phonomore and Phonoplex: F.D.M. Telegraph Systems used on Railways in the late 19th Century.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 121, No 12, p1603/8, December 1974.

The Phonomore and Phonoplex were introduced in 1885 to provide additional telegraph channels in the frequency range above odinary d.c. or morse channels. An analysis of the Phonomore developed by Charles Langdon-Davies which used special coupling transformer/condensers is provided. Also details of Edison’s phonoplex which used signals derived from transients produced in an induction coil for a high pass channel are given. The commercial use of these circuits by the railways is described. The commercial companies involved in exploiting these circuits between 1893 and 1920 and their financial positions are discussed.

 

Beginnings of the Telephone Service.

Electronics & Power; Vol 22. p163/7, March 1976.

After the invention of the telephone by Alexander Bell its commercial development was rapid. The first local services and the advent of telephone exchanges are described. The competition between telephone companies and the role of the state are investigated. After the Post Office monopoly was set up, the growth of inter-urban links and the expansion of long distance telephony in Britain, Europe, and the USA are outlined.

 

Beginnings of the Telephone Service.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 123, No 6, p561/8, June 1976.

The rapid development of telephone services after the invention of the telephone is described in terms of interurban links and telephone exchanges. The technical difficulties, commercial rivalries and governmental policies holding back development are highlighted. The simultaneous use of the telegraph and telephone invented by van Rysselberghe in Europe and the development of metallic-loop circuits in the U.S.A. are explored. The effect of the successful London to Paris telephone link is also investigated. The improvements to both exchanges and transmission systems in the first two decades of the 20th century are covered giving details of coil loading of cables, electromechanical telephone repeaters, and the exploitation of electronics and modulation.

 

Early Telephone Working in the North East of England.

Proceedings of the 4th I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, p62/7, July 1976.

The introduction of the telephone in the North East saw competition between the Post Office and a commercial company. The use of underground cables providing metallic-loop circuits and the

experiments carried out in 1882 are described, together with the use of trunk lines up to 1912 when the whole network was taken over by me Post Office.

 

The First Cross-Cannel Telephone Cable: The London - Paris Telephone Links of 1891.

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, vol 47, p117/32, 1974-6.

In the late 1880s Britain lagged behind other advanced countries in long-distance telephony, although being ahead of them in theoretical work. This is explained by the fact mat the British telegraph service was so good that no need was seen for long-distance telephony. W.H.Preece’s experiments and incorrect theory of long-distance telephony are expounded and his Memorandum justifying the cross-channel link is reproduced. The design of the cable to be used, Its manufacture and installation are all described together with details of the opening of the service and an appraisal of its technical performance. The conclusions given show that the major work on the link was British. success being achieved in spite of an incorrect understanding of telephony but due more to the many practical experiments undertaken by W.H.Preece as the head of Post Office Engineering.

 

Chapter 50: Electrical Communication.

History of Technology, Vol 7, p1220/67, 1978.

This chapter of History of Technology begins with the origin of the telephone and the start of telephone services thereby introducing telephone exchanges and, very shortly after, inter urban long distance telephony. The beginnings of radio are outlined with the contribution of Marconi and other pioneers. The impact of the thermionic valve is covered together with such techniques as modulation, sidebands, and negative feedback. This is followed by a section on cables, aerials and antennas and the introduction of the Strowger exchange. Radio broadcasting developments are discussed, as is the introduction of television. Finally sound recording technology is mentioned in terms of recording techniques and microphone technology.

 

The Early Development of the British Underground Trunk Telephone Network.

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 49, p57/74, 1978.

The main problems of using underground cables for the transmission of speech at the turn of the century are outlined. The effects of different designs of cables are explained and also the first breakthrough of inductive loading which doubled the quality of the transmission. Some consideration is also given to the use of phantom circuits to improve carrying capacity. The major advance in the telephone trunk networks, due to the use of thermionic valves working as amplifiers, thus making telephone repeaters possible, is described together with details of the types of repeaters. The introduction of negative feedback which signalled the end of these types of systems about 1935 is considered in order to separate modern technology from earlier developments.

 

Francois van Rysselberghe: Pioneer of Long-Distance Telephony.

Technology & Culture, Vol 19, p650/74, October 1978.

(For Summary see BIOGRAPHY)

 

A Technical History of Phantom Circuits.

Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 126, No 9, p893/900, September 1979.

The historical and technical development of phantom circuits is outlined. These circuits occurred on multipair telephone and telegraph cables. The use of suitable transformers and balancing arrangements are discussed together with their economic attractions. Their employment, from 1900 onwards, in Britain, Europe, and the USA, especially on underground and submarine cables, is explored and their theoretical performance is considered.

 

Amplified Telephone Lines before Negative Feedback with particular reference to Zero-loss Two-wire Lines in 1934.

Proceedings of the 12th I.E.E. Weekend Meeting on the History of Electrical Engineering, pl/16, 1984.

Dr.Tucker describes his first professional work for the Post Office in 1933/4. At that time 60% of telephone circuits were two-wire, using repeaters incorporating valve amplifiers giving an overall loss of 3db. This was not good enough for picture transmission for newspapers. There was mild controversy in the Post Office whether to convert to a four wire system or improve the existing two wire lines. Therefore experiments were undertaken to provide zero-loss on two-wire telephone lines prior to the application of negative feedback. Although the experiments were successful, they involved ‘hand tuning’ and the selection of individual valves, so eventually the decision was taken to upgrade all lines to four wire operation. This paper is accompanied by extensive reproduction of experimental results from Dr.Tucker’s contemporary notebooks.

 

Editorial

The Invention and Early Use of the Telephone.

Journal of the Institution of Electronics & Telecomrnunications Engineers, Vol 22, No 3, p101/6, 1976.

Some of the more fundamental aspects of the origins of the telephone, particularly the telephone transmitter and receiver are discussed. Also the way in which telephony spread rapidly throughout the world in the decade which followed its commercial exploitation with the introduction of exchanges, inter-urban networks, and long distance telephony. Finally, a brief account is given of the beginning of telephony in India.

 

Book Reviews

Tagebuch der Nachrichtentechnik von 1600 bis zur Gegenwari.

By Sigfrid von Weiher, Published by VDE Verlag gmbh.

Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 119, p14/5, April 1981.

 

Power of Speech: A History of Standard Telephones and Cables.

By Peter Young, published by George Allen & Unwin.

Newcornen Bulletin, Vol 127, p17, 1983.

 

 

ECOLOGY

Articles

The Epping Forest Survey; A Preliminary Account of the Ecological Work of the Chingford Branch at Cuckoo Pits.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society, p43/4, 1942.

 

The Epping Forest Survey: Second Year. The Climate of Epping Forest.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society p43/6, 1944.

 

The Epping Forest Survey: Report on the Survey of the Cuckoo Pits Area 1942-4.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society p39/65, 1945.

 

The Mammals and Birds of Highhams Park.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society p109/16, 1947.

 

A Preliminary Quantitative Study of Birds near Bicker, Pan of Holland.

Transactions of the Lincolnshire Naturalists’ Union, p31/9, 1948.

 

The Epping Forest Survey: Report on the Ludgate Plain Area 1946-7.

The London Naturalist Journal of the London Natural History Society p66/73, 1948.

 

Some Simple Quantitative Relationships in Ecology with particular reference to Birds.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society p42/55, 1948.

 

The Application of the Logarithmic Series & the Index of Diversity to Bird Population Statistics.

The London Naturalist, Journal of the London Natural History Society, p62/80, 1951.

 

MISCELLANY

Articles

A Note on Duhamel’s Integral with particular reference to the Transient Response of Filter Section.

Philosophical Magazine, Ser 7, Vol 36, p203/12, March 1948.

 

An Analogue Computer for Fourier Transforms.

British Institution of Radio Engineers Convention Paper, p1/4, June 1957.

 

Technological Humanism.

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol 105, p601/2, 1958.

 

Scientific Manpower and Industrial Development.

Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers, Vol 20, No 12, p937, December 1960.

 

Ultrasonic Monitoring of Decompression.

The Lancet, p1253, June 1968.

[Co-author: V.G.Welsby]

 

Comments on the report ‘Neighbourhood Noise’ by British Acoustical Society by the working group on Noise Abatement Act of the Noise Abatement Society.

Journal of Sounds & Vibration, Vol 22, June 1972.

 

19th Century Trades and Occupations in Four Lower-Wyeside Parishes.

Severn & Wye Review, Vol 2, No 1, p3/14, Summer 1972.

 

Sheepwash Neglected.

Country Life, p1117, October 1976.

 

Interpretations of the History of Technology and the Newcomen Society Tradition.

Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol 51, p197/201,1979-80.

 

Fancy That!

Forum, p4/6, 1986.

 

Conference Report

Diamond Jubilee of the Newcomen Society.

Technology and Culture, Vol 23, No 1, p73/7, January 1982.

 

Published Letter

Curious Stone Structure.

Industrial Archaeology, Vol 7, No 3, p346/7, 1970.

 

Book Reviews

The Smaller Publications of the lronbridge Gorge Museum Trust.

Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol 3, No 2. p187/9, Spring 1979.

 

Historic Industrial Scenes: Wales.

By D.Morgan Rees, Published by Moorland Publishing Co. Ltd.

The Newcomen Bulletin, Vol 116, April 1980.